Thomas le Reve, first Bishop of the united diocese of
Lismore and Waterford
Niall C.E.J. O’Brien
Six hundred and fifty years ago, in 1363, the two dioceses of Lismore and Waterford were united under one bishop. For nearly 160 years the various bishops of Waterford had ambitions to be that first united bishop but in the end it was the Bishop of Lismore who became the first bishop of the united diocese of Lismore and Waterford. This article is a short biography of Thomas le Reve, Bishop of Lismore and Waterford.
The writing of a biography on a medieval bishop, and of his diocese, is much easier in countries like England where registers of the bishops survive to give the bulk of the information needed which can be supplemented with other sources. In Ireland, extensive registers only exist for the archbishops of Armagh and to a lesser extent, Dublin. For the other dioceses, it is more often the case that a paragraph or two can only be written. Thus we are fortunate in writing a biography of Thomas le Reve, Bishop of Lismore and later Bishop of the united diocese of Lismore and Waterford, to have a number of sources, scattered across the medieval archive, to help the task.
The early life of Thomas le Reve
The early life of Thomas le Reve is still in darkness. He was a canon at Lismore cathedral before he became Bishop of Lismore but it is unknown if he was a native of the diocese. He held a number of church positions in other dioceses which would suggest le Reve came from another diocese. He held the Archdeaconry of Cashel, valued at £16 with an attached canonry and prebend, valued at 40s. After his consecration as bishop, he gave up these positions. John O’Grady, of the diocese of Killaloe, successfully petitioned the pope for these positions in June 1359 notwithstanding that he had canonries and prebends in four dioceses, including Cashel.
Thomas le Reve held a canonry in the diocese of Cloyne along with the prebend of Cullenen (Cooliney, Cullen) which was valued at 5 marks. Following his promotion to the See of Lismore the canonry and prebend were given to Richard Gate, of the Diocese of Lichfield, in 1358. Richard was a nephew of John Gate, Treasurer of Dublin and held the canonry and prebend of Typerkenny in St. Patrick’s, Dublin.
Outside of the ecclesiastical world le Reve made an appearance at this time. In July 1356 Master Thomas le Reve, cleric, witnessed a military indenture made at Cashel between James, Earl of Ormond and Sir Richard, son of Edmund de Burgo.
The diocese of Lismore before le Reve
John Leynagh was made Bishop of Lismore in 1322. He was consecrated on the same Palm Sunday as Nicholas Welifed was made Bishop of Waterford. It was first decreed by Pope John XXII in 1327 that the two dioceses should merge following the death or removal of either bishop. The separate cathedrals would continue their independent existence with their own chapters but they could act as one in electing a bishop. When Bishop Leynagh died in 1354 this merger should have occurred but it didn’t. Instead the Lismore diocese remained in the king’s hands for nearly four years.
In the summer of 1356 Roger, Bishop of Waterford went to England with a provision of staying for three years. While there he petitioned the King to deliver the temporalities of the vacant See of Lismore to him. He cited the previous papal provision of Pope John, which was promoted by Edward II, that the two dioceses of Waterford and Lismore would be joined under one bishop on the death or transfer of the other bishop. Now that Lismore was vacant, Roger wanted to become the first bishop of the united diocese. Edward III agreed and issued patent letters to the justiciar and chancellor of Ireland to implement the union.
The Dublin government failed to implement the union but instead used the vacant See of Lismore to present its own officials. In October 1355 the king had presented the Lismore prebend of Kilmolran to William de Tyryngton under the great seal of England. This was countermanded somewhat in June 1356 by the presentation of Thomas Minot (third baron of the Irish exchequer from 1356 and later Archbishop of Dublin), to the prebend of Kilmolran and Dissert. This presentation was then countermanded in October 1356 by the presentation of William de Tyryngton to the joint prebend. In such times of confusion and apparent lack of control by royal officials, others decided to help themselves to a benefice or two in the vacant diocese. Thus Dublin officials used the seal of Ireland to collate the king’s clerk, Thomas de Cotyngham to the same prebend. William complained to Edward III and the king issued a new patent in June 1357 revoking any collation made to de Cotyngham.
Thomas le Reve was a canon at Lismore cathedral throughout all this period when the See was vacant and the diocese was a place of rich harvest for those seeking church benefices. It is not clear if Thomas held a prebend with his canonry. There was certainly a lot more canons in the cathedral than there were prebends available. In 1350 Bishop John Leynagh had created a new prebend from a portion of an existing parish and united it with the vicarage of Dungarvan. This last act was to give the prebend a sufficient income for the occupying canon.
Many career conscious clerics wanted to become canons in a cathedral while the more ambitious clerics were canons in a number of different cathedrals. Thomas le Reve was also a canon in the cathedrals of Cashel and Cloyne. The reason for this concentration and over supply of canons, seen in Lismore in the 1340s, was mainly two fold. In the first instance, many papal mandates, secured from the pope by those seeking benefices, usually had a canon or two as judges in the case. If a canon was to judge favourably on the petitioner for the benefice than future rewards and payback would be expected. Another reason to become a canon was that the canons with the cathedral officials like the dean, elected the new bishop. By this act, some of the canons who backed the successful candidate would expect a reward from the new bishop of a parish or two.
The crossing within Lismore Cathedral looking north-west
Thomas le Reve, Bishop of Lismore
In 1358 Thomas le Reve vacated his canonic position in Lismore cathedral after the pope had approved of his election to succeed John Leynagh as Bishop of Lismore. On 24 August 1358, Edward III issued a patent letter ordering the justiciar and chancellor of Ireland to deliver the temporalities of the diocese to Thomas following the latter’s declaration of fealty to the king. A similar letter was sent to the escheator of Ireland and a writ de intendendo was sent to the bishopric tenants to obey and be loyal to their new lord.
In July 1358 Bishop Thomas got a papal grant of indulgence for one year and forty days for anybody who visited Lismore cathedral and contributed to the fabric of same. Bishop Thomas said that the cathedral had suffered from hostile attacks. It was not stated who had made these attacks. It could have been Irish attacks but more possibly attributed to some Anglo-Norman family in the Desmond rebellion or in the fight between the Roches and the Condons in North-East Cork.
The parish network that Bishop le Reve succeeded to was unchanged for two hundred years. The job of finding clerics to fill these parishes was a constantly changing job. Many of the parishes were outside the bishop’s area of appointment as the right of presentation was held by various abbeys and priorys. In addition, a large area in the centre of the diocese was under presentation of the king. This was centred on the Dungarvan rectory and its subordinate parishes. The Earl of Desmond should have the right of presentation but the king exercised this right because of Desmond’s many rebellions and because Dungarvan was formerly a royal manor and so the crown felt it had some ancient right to the rectory.
Many people who were presented as rectors of Dungarvan and clergy in the subordinate parishes were government ministers and officials in Dublin. Their presentation was a reward for past services and/or a source of extra income. For example, John de Balscote was appointed by the crown to the vicarage of Clashmore in 1356 after ending his second term as deputy treasurer of Ireland, and this was simply confirmed by Bishop le Reve in 1358. De Balscote was previously Rector of Dungarvan from 1331 until 1355 during which time he was Chamberlain of the Dublin exchequer (1326-1332), clerk of the wages (1332 & 1441), Engrosser of the exchequer (1332 to 1344) and Deputy Treasurer of Ireland (1341 to 1343).
Incidents later occurred where the crown made a presentation of William de Wynterton to the prebend of Kilgobinet in September 1359, declaring that this grant was made while the diocese was vacant and instructing Bishop Thomas to admit William. In this case, Bishop le Reve seems to have cooperated with the government. Yet his support had often the appearance of support rather than actual assistance given.
Around 1359, the king presented Robert Brown to the vicarage of Dungarvan yet the right of presentation was questioned by many locals across Munster. Bishop le Reve seemed to support the king’s right and Robert’s claim. The bishop travelled around Munster with Robert Brown meeting the objectors and showing the king’s writs. While in company together, they were attacked by Thomas Odure (from Tipperary) and his followers. They captured Brown and took him to the wood of Urlyf where he remained in irons and under strict custody for six weeks. Bishop le Reve and the others in the party seemed not to have suffered any injuries and were allowed to go on their way.
After he became Bishop of Lismore, Thomas le Reve gave up a number of benefices he held in other dioceses, yet this did not stop him from being involved in other dioceses. Sometime before 1361 Robert Godyn, clerk, got a papal provision of the treasurership of St. Mary’s cathedral in Limerick. The crown judged that Godyn had trespassed upon the position contrary to the statute of provisors and revoked the provision. In the arguments with the crown, Thomas le Reve, then Bishop of Lismore and Robert Haket acted as sureties for Robert Godyn. At Easter term in 1361, the sureties paid a fine of £5 into the Irish exchequer for this trespass. In 1364 this fine was repaid to the sureties on Robert Godyn receiving a pardon for his offence.
Government commissions and positions of attorney
Over the years Bishop le Reve received various government commissions. He was also involved in receiving attorneys for those absent from Ireland as well as acting as an Irish attorney for absent people. In August 1359, Bishop le Reve was given a commission of oyer and terminer with Sir Richard Dacton, John Keppock and Roger Devenyssh. They were to enquire into the complaints made by the citizens of Waterford city that English and Irish vessels were loading and unloading their cargos in other part of the Suir estuary. This was contrary to the many royal charters and grants given to Waterford city that all vessels in the Suir estuary had to load and unload in the city and thus pay charges to the city authorities.
Ten years later, in July 1369 Bishop le Reve received letters from Robert Raven and Richard Brok who were acting as attorneys in England for Henry Golofre of Leicester who was staying in Ireland for a year. The bishop was no longer chancellor of Ireland at that time but still involved himself on the fringes of the Dublin administration. Bishop le Reve would have known Henry Golofre as, in 1361; he was presented to the church of Youghal by the justiciar of Ireland in opposition to the king’s nominee of John de Hirst. In June 1363 Golofre violently entered Youghal church, beat the servants of de Hirst and seized the place. Bishop le Reve was used to entering a benefice without proper authority and must have looked upon Henry as a fellow ambitious cleric.
On occasions, the bishop acted as attorney in Ireland for people staying in England. In October 1367 he got, along with Robert Preston, such a commission from Roger de Clifford who was staying in England.
Christ Church Cathedral, Waterford which was knocked down in the 18th century
Bishop of the united diocese of Lismore and Waterford
In 1362 Bishop Roger Cradock of Waterford was transferred to the diocese of Llandaff in Wales. The Waterford chapter did not elect a new bishop but accepted Bishop Thomas le Reve of Lismore as the first bishop of a united diocese. The presence of Thomas’s possible kinsman, Walter le Reve as Dean of Waterford cathedral played an important part in this union. If Walter was not in Waterford it is very possible that a new bishop would have been elected, and the two dioceses would therefore have remained separate.
The two men had connections before 1362. Walter le Reve was elected Dean of Waterford in 1351 following the death of Adam Lok. Seven years later Bishop Thomas secured a papal grant of confirmation as Walter had only been confirmed by the then Bishop of Waterford.
Edward III issued a patent letter in October 1363 to the Justiciar and Chancellor of Ireland to mandate that they recognise Thomas as bishop of the joint dioceses. The escheator was told to deliver the temporalities to Thomas and a writ de intendendo was sent to the tenants of the Waterford diocese to recognise their new lord.
In July 1363 Bishop le Reve was at the papal court in Avignon, France. He went there to secure a portable altar for himself (which was granted). He also sought a relaxation of three years to those who visited the cathedrals at Lismore and Waterford and gave financial support to the reconstruction of same. This was only given for one year and forty days. Thomas wanted to create four notaries (he was allowed two), and for conservators for himself and his two churches for seven years (he was allowed five years). Bishop le Reve was more successful at getting power to dispense two persons on account of illegitimacy so that they could hold cathedral benefices. Thomas also got a grant for his clerk, William Herwardstok of a canonry of Wherwell, with the expectation of a prebend, notwithstanding that he already held the church of Bonewell in the diocese of Norwich.
This latter involvement by Bishop le Reve in securing church positions in other dioceses for his friends and associates was repeated much closer to home. In November 1367, Edward III presented David Gower to the vacant church of Galtrim in the diocese of Meath in the full contentment of a job well done. Yet a few months later David petitioned the King that he was refused admittance by the spiritual guardian of the diocese. Instead, the guardian acknowledged the appointment of Walter le Reve, by Bishop le Reve. The Bishop was then Chancellor of Ireland and used his official position to make letters patent under the seal of Ireland to make the presentation official and had it back dated to before David Gower’s presentation. Edward III was would not accept this abuse and in March 1368, ordered the guardian to admit Gower to the parish.
In the first week of Lent, 1367 the Bishop of Lismore and Waterford attended the famous parliament at Kilkenny which passed the even more famous Statute of Kilkenny. This legislation confined its area of operation to the English part of Ireland where it sought to control the interaction between the two races. Among its provisions were that no Irishman should be admitted to any cathedral, collegiate church or benefice; that ecclesiastics living amongst those who used Irish could have the profits of their benefice seized by their superior and that religious houses should admit Englishmen without considering if they were born in England or Ireland. The bishops at the parliament agreed to excommunicate anyone who broke the spirit of the statutes.
Thomas le Reve as Chancellor of Ireland
On 20 February 1367 Bishop le Reve was appointed Chancellor of Ireland. This position was second only to the justiciar in the Dublin administration and paid £40 per year. The office of chancellor and the chancery, which he headed, started in the mid thirteenth century when the task of administrating Ireland required a greater secretariat of government. Previously letters and writs had been issued by the chancellor in England or by the justiciar in Ireland. The chancellor was aided by a group of chancery clerks yet not always in great numbers. By the 1350s there was just one permanent clerk and one assistant.
The issue rolls and the enrolled accounts of Treasurer John de Troy for the years of 1366 to 1368 have not survived. The enrolled accounts of Treasurer Stephen de Vale, Bishop of Limerick, for the years 1368 to 1372 only give a total figure for the payments made to government ministers. Thus the usual sources of information on government ministers are not available for the time when Thomas le Reve was Chancellor of Ireland.
Some activities of Bishop le Reve as Chancellor included the mandate in June 1367 to deliver the temporalities of the bishopric of Down after William, late prior of Conall, was accepted by the king as the new bishop. In October 1367, along with Robert Preston, Bishop le Reve got a commission to enquire into the profits due to the king from the Irish exchequer and what wages the exchequer ministers were given when working there. The king’s debts and the revenue from the royal lands also formed part of the enquiry.
In November 1367, Bishop le Reve, along with John de Troy, treasurer; Robert de Holiwode, chief baron of the exchequer and Robert Preston, chief justice of the Common Bench was commissioned to enquire if the manor of Rathgell (Rathkeale) in County Limerick was held by the Mautravers family directly from the king or via the countess of Desmond. This inquiry, if it was carried out, produced no definitive answer. In February 1369 and again in December 1374 a new commission was instructed to enquire into the same question using nearly the same wording.
On 25 May 1368 Thomas de Burleye, prior of the Irish Hospital, was appointed Chancellor of Ireland and le Reve was removed. The inappropriate use of the Irish seal made by le Reve, as noted above, may have been the cause of his removal. Yet the bishop had some friends left within earshot of the king. By 20 June 1368 the king wished to restore Thomas le Reve to the chancellorship of Ireland and revoked Burleye’s appointment. The appointment of Stephen Vale, Bishop of Limerick, as Treasurer of Ireland was also revoked at the same time, when John de Troy reassumed that office.
Later that same year, another change was made and Burleye was reappointed chancellor. A writ of liberate was issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Irish exchequer on 23 November 1368 which authorised the payment of £20 to Burleye, as part payment of the chancellor’s annual fee. The £20 was payable for Burleye’s period of office as from 18 June to 18 December 1368. This destroyed any evidence that le Reve was reinstated as chancellor. Stephen de Vale was also reinstated as treasurer of Ireland from 18 July 1368. This positioning of Bishop le Reve and Bishop de Vale on opposite sides of government was to start a long running feud between the two clerics.
Dublin Castle c.1673 yet reflecting much of the medieval castle that le Reve would have known
Bishop le Reve and William de Windsor
Thomas le Reve attended the parliament held at Kilkenny on 7 January 1371 in his capacity as Bishop of Lismore. In July 1372, Bishop le Reve went to London. The Treasurer of Ireland, and Bishop of Limerick, Stephen Vale, had just sent his attorney to London to give an audit of his account. The Bishop of Lismore objected to the accounts because the receipt rolls did not include the income from the parliamentary subsidies and other items. The Chamberlain, who was present, said that such income went directly to the Lieutenant, who was William de Windsor. At this de Windsor was called to explain and did so.
Bishop le Reve was no doubt delighted with the proceedings thus far. His true objective was not to criticise Bishop Stephen Vale as Treasurer but ensnare William de Windsor and maybe precipitate his dismissal. William de Windsor sent a written response to London outlining how he got the subsidy and what he did with it. He said that both the Bishops of Cloyne and Lismore were at the parliament when he got the subsidy and did not raise any objections.
There was no judgement given to either party at this stage. Rather a writ of inquiry was sent to the new Justiciar, Robert de Ashton and to Bishop le Reve, to survey and examine all the accounts of Bishop Stephen during his time as Treasurer. The justiciar and the bishop also got a commission to hold an inquisition into what sources of income William de Windsor had acquired in Ireland, over and above the income he received from the English treasury. They were also to establish how many armed men de Windsor had and what their wages were. These enquires did not make de Windsor happy, especially when his rival, the Bishop of Lismore and Waterford was making the enquiry.
When de Windsor made his three year contract with the king in 1369 he brought an army of 200 men at arms and 300 archers for the first year; 120 and 200 for the second year and 80 and 150 for the third. For this he was to receive £10,000 in the first year, £6,000 in the second and £4,000 in the last year. In addition, de Windsor brought an extra 50 men at arms and 60 archers for which he received £2,300 to cover their wages. The new Lieutenant was appointed to bring peace to Ireland by defeating the king’s enemies with his large army while also restoring the finances of the Dublin government so that Ireland could again pay its own way and not be reliant on subsidies from England. This financial task demanded increased taxation which was resisted by the lords and bishops and was the source of their dislike of de Windsor.
The matter was adjourned until June 1373 when both de Windsor and Bishop Stephen Vale again appeared in London. Bishop Stephen did most of the explaining. No conclusion was made on this occasion and the proceedings were further adjourned until October. After that time the proceedings were adjourned indefinitely.
The strained relations between Bishop le Reve and William de Windsor did not improve after the London altercation. The two clashed over the prebend of New Chapel in Malaghyman in the cathedral church of Cashel. The archbishop of Cashel had died and the diocese of Cashel then fell to the King as was the normal practice when a diocese became void. Therefore Edward III had the right to appoint any cleric to a vacant benefice at Cashel. In July 1374 he appointed John Davy to the vacant prebend of New Chapel and ordered the spiritual guardian of Cashel to admit John to the cathedral with a stall and a place in the chapter.
The spiritual guardian on this occasion was Bishop le Reve and he refused to admit John Davy. Le Reve had previously appointed James Boys to the vacant prebend on the pretext of a collation made under the seal of Ireland by Robert de Ashton, former justiciar of Ireland. Edward III made it clear that no justiciar of Ireland had the right to grant prebends that were in the King’s gift and ordered all such collations to the prebend to be revoked. The King instructed the new archbishop of Cashel, Philip, to admit the King’s appointment. Edward III sent a further mandate to William de Windsor and the Chancellor of Ireland to ‘cause to be sealed under the seal of Ireland as many writs as the said John shall require in prosecuting the king’s right’. This affair over the Cashel prebend is a practically a repetition of the earlier attempt by Bishop le Reve to impose his brother into a church in Meath while using the seal of Ireland.
In 1374 the English crown renewed its programme of a self-financing Ireland. A parliament was summoned at Kilkenny to collect what the government judged to be a reasonable taxation to maintain the country. The bishops, lords and commons resisted this measure with stories of poverty. Bishop le Reve asserterted that his diocese was unable to pay because of the notorious extreme poverty of his clergy caused by the constant war with the Irish and that the only resident clergy within the diocese lived among the king’s enemies and thus no taxation could be collected from that quarter.
A parliament was held at Kilkenny on 4 July 1375 at which ecclesiastical assessors, collectors and receivers were appointed for the collection of a subsidy. The diocese of Waterford and Lismore was assessed for £100 and Bishop Thomas was appointed both the collector and receiver. In other diocese, such as in Cloyne, Ferns and Emly, named clerics were appointed for the job. William de Windsor was still the lieutenant and took great pleasure in having le Reve as a tax collector as such a job, since the dawn of government was, and in many ways still is, a most detested position.
Later years of Bishop le Reve
In 1376, Bishop le Reve sent a petition to the king that indictments made before Robert de Ashton and Robert de Preston in Ireland be sent to the king’s council in England for expedition.
An ordinary council meeting was held in Cork in January 1382 at which the chancellor, John Colton, was elected justiciar until the next parliament or great council. Thomas was unable or couldn’t be bothered going and so sent a proctor in act in his absence. A few years later, in July 1385 Bishop le Reve did attend a council held at Kildare. His presence was appreciated as in the absence of the king’s Lieutenant a commission of four persons was elected to preside at the meeting. The four were the chancellor, the Earls of Desmond and Ormond and Bishop le Reve. Prelates, magnates and king’s ministers were present to deal with an array of petitions and other business of government.
In that same month of July 1385, Bishop le Reve was made a supervisor of the peace for Tipperary along with Peter Haket, Archbishop of Cashel.
Le Reve remained as Bishop of Lismore and Waterford until 1393. In that year he died of old age. It is very possible that he fathered a son as celibacy was not something the Irish church took very seriously unless one wanted a benefice for which celibacy was a requirement. There was a John Reve as Vicar of Kilmeaden from about 1386 to 1389. He was also Archdeacon of Lismore from about 1384 to approximately 1426 when he died. There was also a Thomas Reve who was precentor at Lismore from about 1393 to before 1427 by which time he had died.
The Romanesque archway into Lismore Castle, the medieval home of the Bishop of Lismore
The idea of Bishop le Reve having a son is only speculation. What is of certain knowledge is that Thomas le Reve became Bishop of Lismore when such an honour should not have been available to him. The Bishop of Waterford should have become first bishop of the united dioceses. As Bishop of Lismore, Thomas le Reve made efforts to improve his diocese. His work did not go unrewarded.
When the Diocese of Waterford became vacant in 1363 Thomas le Reve was in a good position. He had made good connections and shown good ability to impress the Waterford chapter along with the English king to succeed as Bishop of Waterford. The often violent conflict between the two dioceses since the early days of the Norman invasion was at an end. The bishop from the Irish diocese had become bishop of the English diocese. In the 1480s conflict again appeared between the two cathedral chapters but the reality of the united diocese remained.
Medieval documents referred to the new bishop as the Bishop of Lismore and Waterford and this title was given also to the successors of le Reve. It was only in Tudor times, and more after the Reformation, that the title changed to that of Bishop of Waterford and Lismore. The bright lights of city life and the sale of the Lismore castle and manor confirmed the changed of title as a reflection of reality.
Yet the greatest achievement of Thomas le Reve is that six hundred and fifty years after he became first bishop of the united diocese is that the union should still remain.
 W.H. Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland: Petitions to the Pope, vol. I, 1342-1419 (H.M.S.O., London, 1896), p. 342
 W.H. Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers: Petitions to the Pope, vol. I, 1342-1419, p. 308
 Edmund Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds (Dublin, 1934), vol. 2, pp. 23-4
 Rev. W. Rennison, Succession list of the Bishop, Cathedral and parochial Clergy of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore (1920), p. 33
 Bernadette Williams, The Annals of Ireland by Friar John Clyn (Dublin, Four Courts Press, 2007), p. 176
 Canon Patrick Power, ‘Obligations pro anntis Diocesis Lismorensis, 1426-1529’, in Archivium Hibernicum, no. 12 (1946), p. 48
 G.O. Sayles, Documents on the Affairs of Ireland Before the King’s Council (Dublin, Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1979), p. 151
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1354-1358), p. 440, 473-4 care of www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/patentrolls
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1354-1358), pp. 284, 440, 46-; Philomena Connolly, Irish Exchequer Payments (Dublin, 1998), pp. 488, 517
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1354-1358), p. 569
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1350-1354), p. 538
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1358-1361), p. 98
 W.H. Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers: Petitions to the Pope, vol. I, 1342-1419, p. 330
 Rev. W. Rennison, Succession list of the Bishop, Cathedral and parochial Clergy of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore (1920), p. 159, note a. The parishes were Affane, Aglish, Clashmore, Clonea, Colligan, Fews, Kilgobinet, Kilronan, Kinsalebeg, Lisgenan, Ringagonagh and Whitechurch.
 Rev. W. Rennison, Succession list of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, p. 127, note q; Philomena Connolly, Irish Exchequer Payments (Dublin, Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1998), pp. 460, 465
 Rev. W. Rennison, Succession list of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, p. 161; Philomena Connolly, Irish Exchequer Payments, pp. 322-347, 354, 371, 381, 399, 406-8, 423
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1358-1361), p. 269
 Philomena Connolly, Irish Exchequer Payments, pp. 435, 500
 Philomena Connolly, Irish Exchequer Payments, p. 517
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1358-1361), p. 284
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1367-1370), p. 291
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1361-1364), pp. 132, 371-2
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1367-1370), p. 14
 Canon Patrick Power, ‘Obligations pro anntis Diocesis Lismorensis, 1426-1529’, in Archivium Hibernicum, no. 12 (1946), p. 48
 W.H. Bliss (ed.), Calendar of Papal Registers: Petitions to the Pope, vol. I, 1342-1419, pp. 308, 330
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1361-1364), p. 400
 W.H. Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers: Petitions to the Pope, vol. I, 1342-1419, p. 439
 W.H. Bliss, Calendar of Papal Registers: Petitions to the Pope, vol. I, 1342-1419, p. 438
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1367-1370), pp. 95-6
 J.T. Gilbert, History of the Viceroys of Ireland (Dublin, James Duffy, 1865), pp. 224-7
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1364-1367), p. 383
 Philomena Connolly, Irish Exchequer Payments, p. xxii
 G.O. Sayles, ‘The Administration of Ireland: introduction (a reprint)’, in Analecta Hibernica no. 29 (1980), pp. 15-9
 Philomena Connolly, Irish Exchequer Payments, pp. 526-8
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1364-1367), p. 410
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1367-1370), p. 13
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1367-1370), pp. 59-60
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1367-1370), pp. 198-9; Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1374-1377), pp. 59-60; James Hogan, ‘Miscellanea of the Chancery, London’, in Analecta Hibernica, no. 1 (1930), pp. 197, 204
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1367-1370), p. 123
 Paul Dryburgh and Brendan Smith, ‘Calendar of Documents relating to Medieval Ireland in the series of Ancient Deeds in the National Archives of the United Kingdom’, in Analecta Hibernica, no. 39 (2006), p. 49 and note 85
 Philomena Connolly, Irish Exchequer Payments, p. 527
 H.G. Richardson and G.O. Sayles, Parliaments and Councils of Mediaeval Ireland, volume 1 (Dublin, Stationery Office, 1947), pp. 36, 43, 45
 H.G. Richardson and G.O. Sayles, Parliaments and Councils of Mediaeval Ireland, volume 1, pp. 40-1
 G.O. Sayles, ‘The Administration of Ireland: introduction (a reprint)’, in Analecta Hibernica no. 29 (1980), p. 60
 H.G. Richardson and G.O. Sayles, Parliaments and Councils of Mediaeval Ireland, volume 1, pp. 42-3
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1370-1374), pp. 238-9
 James Lydon, The Lordship of Ireland in the Middle Ages (Dublin, Four Courts Press, 2003), pp. 157-9
 G.O. Sayles, ‘The Administration of Ireland: introduction (a reprint)’, in Analecta Hibernica no. 29 (1980), p. 60
 Rev. John Gleeson, Cashel of the Kings (Dublin, De Búrca, 2001), p. 192. Archbishop Thomas O’Carroll died at Cashel on 8 February 1373 and the temporalities were in charged to Stephen Vale, by then bishop of Meath and so adding more bad feeling to the clash between le Reve and de Windsor.
 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Edward III (1370-1374), p. 407
 J.T. Gilbert, History of the Viceroys of Ireland, pp. 235-6
 H.G. Richardson and G.O. Sayles, Parliaments and Councils of Mediaeval Ireland, volume 1, p. 65
 Philomena Connolly, ‘Irish material in the class of Ancient Petitions (SC8) in the Public Record Office, London’, in Analecta Hibernica, no. 34 (1987), p. 44; G.O. Sayles, Documents on the Affairs of Ireland Before the King’s Council (Dublin, Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1979), pp. 233-4
 H.G. Richardson and G.O. Sayles, Parliaments and Councils of Mediaeval Ireland, volume 1, pp. 115-6
 H.G. Richardson and G.O. Sayles, Parliaments and Councils of Mediaeval Ireland, volume 1, p. xiv
 Robin Frame, ‘Commissions of the peace in Ireland, 1302-1464’, in Analecta Hibernica, no. 35 (1992), p. 30
 Ware-Harris, Histories of the Bishops of Ireland (Dublin, 1739), Vol. 1, p. 534
 Rev. W. Rennison, Succession list of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, pp. 59, 87; Canon Patrick Power, ‘Obligations pro anntis Diocesis Lismorensis, 1426-1529’, in Archivium Hibernicum, no. 12 (1946), pp. 48-9
 Rev. W. Rennison, Succession list of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, p. 54 and note c