Monday, December 30, 2013

Mocollop Castle, Co. Waterford: A history of a medieval castle: Chapters seven, eight and nine

Mocollop Castle, Co. Waterford:
A history of a medieval castle

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

[Link to chapters one and two = Chapters one and two]

[Link to chapters three and four  Chapters three and four]

[Link to chapters five and six = Chapters five and six]

Chapter seven

    After the Nine Years War James Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald left Mocollop and moved to Inchinleamy which he held along with Ballinlovane/Cloonbeg. James took up farming and tried to adjust to his changed circumstances. Arable farming seems to have been his chief occupation. In the civil survey of 1641 there was no meadow or pasture acres given for the two districts. Instead 150 acres and 140 acres of arable crops were given respectively for Inchinleamy and Ballinlovane/Cloonbeg. The reminder of the reduced estate was classified as mountain land of 350 acres and 260 acres respectively.
Initially after Sir Richard Boyle took over the Raleigh estates it would appear that James Fitzgerald had ownership rights over Inchinleamy and Ballinlovane. But consumerism and rising debts were the undoing of James. The possible legal bills in the unsuccessful recovery of Mocollop could have added to his financial problems. The New English settlers had access to easy money on the London credit market and they used this to loan out money to the Old English settlers in Ireland like the Fitzgeralds. James, like many of his neighbours, had little sense of what mortgaging his land could involve if he could not repay. By 1612 James Fitzgerald owed money to a good number of people. Sir Richard Boyle made his money by buying mortgages and acquiring property rights on mortgages that he knew had a fair chance of falling into debt. He saw James Fitzgerald as such a easy target.
Dominick Meade was owed £10 by James and Boyle paid off Meade and got the mortgage. Edmund Coppinger and Sir Thomas Brown also held mortgages on other property of James Fitzgerald. Boyle paid off these people and went after James to pay his mortgages. Fitzgerald had little means of repaying his debts and Boyle purchased Inchinleamy in July 1613 for £100. He also secured Ballinlovane at about the same time. Shortly after Boyle lease back to James Fitzgerald the land of Ballinlovane for £5 per year and the same rent for Inchinleamy. By 1640 this rent had increase £20 for the two properties. With this gain Boyle would go off to give mortgages to other easy people who had little prospects of repaying and so the Boyle estate continued to grow.
Sometime before 1640 old James Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald died and his property interests passed to his nephew James Fitz Maurice, son of that Maurice Fitzgerald who got a pardon in 1601. The new James Fitzgerald continued to lease his ancestral property from Sir Richard Boyle who was by then 1st Earl of Cork.
By the summer of 1640 the Mocollop area had enjoyed nearly forty years of peace and economic growth. The area around Mocollop Castle and stretching back over the hills to the Araglin River was leased from the Earl of Cork by Lieutenant Thomas Maxwell and Lieutenant John Croker. At Mocollop they had a grist mill to grind corn and make flour. There was 485 acres of arable land around the area to supply the mill. Additional corn came to the mill from the Fitzgerald areas while Thomas Jackson had 580 acres of arable land in the Sheanmore/Ballyduff area.[1] 
Mocollop Castle and the surrounding area as seen from the glen to the north of Mocollop 
[author, 2013]

The two lieutenants also had a tucking mill. Tucking involved the pounding of newly woven woollen cloth in an alkaline solution to produce a stronger and denser material. The cloth was then dried by stretching it on a tender frame.[2] The Mocollop and Coolisheal areas had 1,000 acres and 400 acres of mountain land for sheep rearing.[3] A lot of people were employed in the sheep and wool industry at Mocollop. One of these was James Barlett who lost £45 8s at the outbreak of the Confederate War in 1641.[4]
Another big employer in the Mocollop area was the iron smelter and nail factory at Araglin Bridge in the present townland of Knockbaun. Making charcoal, carting iron ore (from Richard Everard’s land north of the Araglin River) and finished iron bars along with bringing fuel to the works and operating the works created plenty of activity. The works were leased from the Earl of Cork directly by those involve in the iron industry and would be separate from the lease held by Maxwell and Croker. Henry Wright and Richard Blacknall held the lease of the iron works in 1626.
The charcoal came from the many woods in the district. A survey in 1626 found the woods at Kilcoran and Sheanmore to be wholly cut down with only stubs left. The woods at Ballygomeashy (Marston), Mocollop, Ballinalovane, Ballyduff and Sheanbeg were still standing but much had been cut down for the iron works.[5]
We mentioned earlier that when Sir Richard Boyle acquired the manor of Mocollop from Raleigh that it contained five ploughlands. Two of these ploughlands were held by Maxwell and Croker at Mocollop. James Fitzgerald had two more ploughlands of one each at Inchinleamy and Ballinlovane/Cloonbeg.[6] The fifth ploughland could possibly be the present townland of Sheanbeg which was held directly by Boyle. This townland was not included in the civil survey of 1641 but government surveys in the 1580s place it as part of the manor of Mocollop.[7] When you are the biggest landowner in Munster it is easy to forget to tell government surveyors all the property plots you have.
Another suggestion for the missing five ploughland could be those townlands along the north bank of the River Bride which were held by Mocollop. When Fleetwood was offered Mocollop in 1587 it was for four ploughlands but in the grant to Raleigh it was for five ploughlands. In 1640 Bridane was valued as half ploughland.[8] The other two portions, Ballyforge and White’s Town, possibly made up the other half ploughland.
Chapter eight

    It would appear that the castle complex at Mocollop was in fairly good condition in 1640. The main castle building was listed as habitable and additional buildings would be needed for the grain and wool industries. Some facilities for the Araglin iron works could also be at Mocollop. Yet the peace and prosperity of the previous forty years was to be soon destroyed in twelve years of war.
The 1641 Rebellion or Confederate War or Irish Civil War or the War of Independence depending on your political views began in Ulster in October 1641. Munster was initially quite but under the surface the three sides were marshalling their troops. These three sides were the native old Irish, the Old English (descendants of the Norman invaders like the Fitzgeralds) and the New English like Boyle. The aims and motives for war were different for all three groups.
An additional division was within the New English camp between those who supported King Charles I and those who supported Parliament in the concurring English Civil War. This division among the English was suppressed in Munster as the Irish and Old English forces were far more numerous. For much of the war it was a battle of survival for the New English in Munster and their internal divisions only became a factor when they were numerically superior to the opposition after the arrival of Cromwell in 1649.
Meanwhile back at the start of war in 1641. It would appear that towards the end of 1641 James Fitzgerald had assembled a small military force with which he took Mocollop Castle. Following this success James further developed his force. On 19 February 1642 he led his army over the hill to Conna which was held by Robert Peach for the Earl of Cork.[9]
James Fitzgerald had hoped to take Conna and move onto Tallow and from there swing round to meet another Irish army advancing on Lismore from the east. Lismore was the chief stronger hold of the Earl of Cork and its capture would be a significant victory for the Irish. But Fitzgerald’s force was insufficient or more lack artillery pieces of high calibre to take Conna.[10] The defeat was a major setback as shortly after his retreat back to Mocollop he lost his ancestral home.
Thomas Carter was in Mocollop Castle in March 1642 from where he wrote to the Earl of Cork on the local actions. On 1st March Carter went out a burnt Fitzgerald’s town of Ballinlavane where he captured three score cows and 200 sheep. At this James Fitzgerald retreated westwards into Condon country to Dungallane Castle. He left an army company to guard his house at Inchinleamy. Carter said that Fitzgerald was obliged to plough Carter’s field but instead raids upon Mocollop taking goods and corn. These raids also prevented the English settlers from planted corn.
Carter asked to be entered in the king’s pay along with locally mustered soldiers. A minister preached a service every Sunday in the castle along with prayers every day. Carter says the minister has high spirits and gives encouragement to the others. The minister had some military training and helped train the soldiers at Mocollop.[11] 
Meanwhile Captain Croker had attacked Tourin tower house where the owner Edmund Roche had become a rebel. Roche was forced from Tourin and fled in horseback along the high ridge between the Blackwater and Bride Rivers. He got as far as Arthur Brag’s land. Others say he got as far as Ballygomeashy (Marston) which could be the same place. There Roche was met Carter and 30 troopers who gave chase to the Blackwater according to Carter’s own account. Dean Naylor of Lismore says it was the people of Mocollop who found Roche in Marston and pursed him to the Blackwater. There Roche stripped down and crossed the river from where he made his way to Tipperary.[12] 
A few days later Captain Henry Tyrrell was appointed by the Earl of Cork to take command at Mocollop and arrived in early March 1642. Here he found Thomas Carter in self-assumed command and would not relinquish to Tyrrell. The captain reported to the Earl at Youghal on 22 March that rebels roam the regions of Coolisheal, Dongellan, Araglin, Inchinleamy and Kilmurry while the people of Mocollop waste gun powder shooting rabbits.
Captain Tyrrell asked for soldiers to be posted at the church and at the top of the Glen from where they could see rebels approaching from the north. Tyrrell said this was the blind side of the castle and he feared a sudden attack from that side. He was also concerned with the attitude of the people as they went about their daily work without observing basic guard duty. But Carter claimed to have a warrant of command from the Earl of Cork and would not listen to Tyrrell’s advice.[13]
Into this unsatisfactory situation trouble was brewing in the west. The Condons of Kilworth had come out on the Irish side and James Fitzgerald of Inchinleamy came to them to get support. This support seems to have materialised because James advanced upon Mocollop. By June 1642 Fitzgerald had retaken the castle.[14] But the flow of war quickly changed again. Fitzgerald didn’t have sufficient troops to establish permanent control and it is recorded that the Irish shortly after abandoned the castle.
The upper floors of the central keep at Mocollop as seen from the south-east
[author, 2012]

It is around this time that we last heard of James Fitzgerald. It seems he retired for warfare following the loss of Mocollop and came to live in his thatched house in the parish of Leitrim. The land of Inchinleamy lies within the parish of Leitrim. Now a group of people wanted to elevate James to the title of Earl of Desmond. The last direct descendent of the last effective Earl of Desmond died in Germany in 1632. Ten years before, in 1622, King James I gave the title to his Scottish friend, the Earl of Denbigh and in whose family the title still runs. James of Mocollop was head of the senior Fitzgerald line after the death of his kinsman in Germany. But he declined the offer to make him Earl. Having seen what happen to the last few earls James had little desire for that poisoned chalice. Yet they took him to Dungallane Castle. Rev. Urban Vigors says that James Fitzgerald was a ‘very weak man both of body and mind’ and went somewhat voluntarily with them. James’s wife went with her husband carrying money and plate.[15] What became of them afterwards is unknown.
Later in 1642 Richard Condon captured his ancestral home of Cloch Liath tower house.[16] Mocollop then became on the front line defence for Lismore. The castle was also important to protect the iron supplies from the Araglin iron works but only for a short time. The works were on the battle front line and were soon abandoned in the face of Condon attacks.
Lismore was attacked by Irish forces coming from the east across the Blackwater in February and May 1643. Both times the town was seriously destroyed but the castle held its ground and the Irish were repulsed.[17] By the summer of 1643 the English were ready to go on the offensive. On 3 June 1643 they captured Cloch Liath but suffered a serious defeat at Manning Ford the next day. The Irish had hoped to follow up the victory by advancing on Lismore and taking Mocollop on the way. Instead a truce was agreed and the Irish army retuned northwards to County Limerick.[18]
By the spring of 1645 the Irish army was sufficiently strengthen to advance on the English held part of Munster. This part stretched from Youghal to Cappoquin and westwards along the Blackwater to Mallow from where it turned south to Bandon and the sea at Kinsale. The Irish had made many incursions into this area but never had sufficient forces or resources to maintain their gains. The English on the other hand were also restricted on their capabilities and could not advance beyond their area until 1647.
The Irish commander in 1645 was the 3rd Earl of Castlehaven and he advanced southwards from Limerick with the intention of taking Youghal (the chief English port). The ports at Cork and Kinsale were also under English control but the narrow inlet to both harbours meant that Youghal was the chief supply port for the Munster English. If Castlehaven was successful the English enclave would be seriously compromised.
A big siege at Liscarroll castle from March to May delayed the Irish advance. Yet Castlehaven pressed on. He crossed the Blackwater at Fermoy with little resistance. The English commander, Roger Boyle, Lord Broghill, didn’t have enough soldiers to defend every crossing point. His plan was to keep most of his force on horseback as a mobile army that could quickly reach any trouble point and overwhelm the Irish by surprise attack. This he did at Castlelyons where the Irish were defeated.
Castlehaven retreated back over the Blackwater and advanced along the north bank taking Mocollop Castle in mid-June on his way to capturing Lismore and Cappoquin.[19] From here Castlehaven went south to encircle Youghal. A major siege developed involving army and naval forces. Slowly but steadily Castlehaven advanced near the town walls and appeared to be unstoppable. It was only when English forces from Cork City advanced to Castlelyons and onto Cappoquin in a large circling movement that Castlehaven lifted the siege and retreated north over the Blackwater. The river now resumed its role as the front line with the Irish holding Mocollop along with other places on the north bank.
This position was maintained until February 1647 when Lord Inchiquin, commander of the English forces, had sufficient troops to advance. On the fifteenth he took Mocollop and advanced to the north bank opposite Lismore.[20]  The Irish held the castle there since 1645 and were sufficiently bedded in that it was April before Inchiquin took the castle. Inchiquin then advanced on Dungarvan and Cashel where he massacred many civilians and soldiers seeking shelter on The Rock.[21]   
Up to January 1648 Inchiquin had support the Parliament side in the English Civil War. But now he changed sides and supported the Royalist cause. The English castles and towns in Munster received Royalist commanders who were often the same people who were Parliamentarians only shortly before. The new royalist constable at Mocollop was Colonel Thomas Maunsell.[22] His was the eldest son of Captain Thomas Maunsell of the Royal Navy who had settled at Derryvillane near Mitchelstown.[23]
Colonel Maunsell had local connections through his 1641 marriage to Margaret, widow of Thomas Hutchins of Mitchelstown and eldest daughter of Leonard Knoyle of Ballygally House near Ballyduff. The colonel had fought for the Royalist side throughout the civil war while his brothers John and Boyle Maunsell fought for Parliament. This division in the family would come to help the colonel after the war.
The English Civil War ended in early 1649 with the execution of King Charles I. The chief Parliamentary commander, Oliver Cromwell, was now free to bring his battle hardened soldiers to Ireland. After hard fought victories at Drogheda, Wexford and Waterford, Cromwell rested over the winter of 1649-50 at Youghal. The English soldiers in Munster had quickly removed their Royalist commanders on the approach of Cromwell. Yet a few Royalist held out one of whom was Colonel Thomas Maunsell at Mocollop.
Cromwell’s forces advanced on the castle sometime over those winter months. Whether the man himself ever came to Mocollop is open to debate. If he was to turn up in every place that tradition said he did then he had little rest in Youghal. The Cromwellian forces established a gun battery at Ballinaroone on the south side of the river from where they shelled the castle. The defenders fought back and held the English at bay. Some sources say that the Cromwellians eventually stormed the castle. Yet other say that both sides came to a draw and the castle was given up voluntarily.[24] To prevent reoccupation by Irish or Royalist forces the Cromwellians destroyed the round keep by removing the east facing wall.
At this stage Colonel Maunsell should have been sent away and possibly did some time in prison. But he didn’t long stay away. After the war while other places were taken over by former Parliament soldiers in lieu of wages and Glenbeg/Coolisheal fell to an Adventurer as repayment for his loans Mocollop was not part of this process. Colonel Thomas Maunsell held Mocollop and was living there in 1659 with his eldest son, also called Thomas.[25] It is said that he used some of the stones from the castle to build a modern house nearby. Possibly on the later site of Mocollop Castle House (now in ruins).
The ruined Mocollop Castle House as seen from the central castle keep looking eastwards

In this good fortune Colonel Maunsell was helped by his brothers and cousins. As said his brother fought for Parliament and John Maunsell was a captain in the Life Guards under Henry Cromwell, Oliver’s son. John fought at Naseby where he was severely wounded but highly decorated.[26] This connection possibly facilitated to peaceful handover of Mocollop following the good show of resistance on the part of the defenders. One gets the impression that the entire attack and defence of Mocollop was just a show piece to give a good name to the officers of both sides. The attackers tried their hardest to get in while the defenders kept them out.
As for Maunsell’s cousins we find his sister Ann was married in 1630 to Rev. Robert Naylor, Dean of Lismore and Rev. Robert’s sister Joan was the mother of Sir Richard Boyle.[27] Who needs an expensive lawyer when you are closely related to the most powerful family in the district?
As for the Mocollop Fitzgeralds they had no such connections to save them. They do not appear among the transplanted persons sent to Connacht. Instead they were reduced to peasant status in the west Waterford area. Rev. Urban Vigors says that James Fitzgerald was an old man at the start of the 1641 war and he may have died during the conflict or shortly after. Rev. Vigors also said that the wife of James was an aunt of Donough McCarthy, Viscount Muskerry and later Earl of Clancarty.[28] I have not been able to confirm this information in the published pedigrees of the McCarthy family but some basis in fact may lie behind the story.
It was possibly a son of James Fitzgerald who was living in 1663 but after that date the family disappears. A person referred to as the widow Fitzgerald was living in the Aherlow Woods, Co. Tipperary in 1675. She is recorded as carrying wood from there to Mocollop where Thomas Maunsell junior paid her £10 for 20 tons of timber.[29] It is not clear who this person was but her connection with Mocollop may reflect an older connection.
The last legitimate heir of Gerald Oge Fitzgerald died in 1743 at Grange, Co. Waterford. He was James Fitzgerald of Kilmacow and great-great-grandson of Thomas Fitzgerald of Kilmacow, the youngest son of Gerald Oge. His only daughter Helena was reported as still living in 1757 but disappeared from history sometime after.[30]
Chapter nine

    Colonel Thomas Maunsell died on 13 March 1687 and was buried at Mocollop church graveyard.[31] A tombstone is recorded as having existed there up to at least 1870.[32] His eldest son Thomas Maunsell took over Mocollop but soon sold it to George Jackson before he died in 1692.
The medieval Mocollop church was located to the south [left] of the church built in 1820 and between the tree and the headstone.

This George Jackson was an ancestor of the Jackson family of Glenbeg and of Ballysaggartmore before they sold the latter place to Arthur Kiely Ussher. Thomas Jackson of 1641 was his ancestor. George Jackson did not keep Mocollop for long and sold it to George Drew of Kilwinny near Tallow. George Drew was the great grandson of Francis Drew, the first of his family to come to Ireland. Francis Drew was a soldier in Queen Elizabeth’s Irish army and settled at Kilwinny under lease from Sir Walter Raleigh.[33]
George Drew left no children and his sister Margaret inherited Mocollop. She subsequently married her cousin John Drew of Ballyduff fortified house (otherwise known as Clancy’s Castle). It is from this marriage that the later Drew family of Mocollop is descended. This John Drew died around 1749 while living at Old Court House in Waterpark, across the river from Mocollop.[34] Old Court was built around 1665 and was in ruins by 1834. The last remains of it was knocked down and cleared away around 1980.

The Mocollop house built by Colonel Maunsell was replaced with the present Georgian house by John Drew or his son Francis before 1787. A later north wing that was three times the size of the present structure was subsequently built. This large wing was knocked down in the late 1940s or early 1950s to avoid a big rates bill.

The towers and buildings of the old castle were turn into farm buildings while the round keep became a coach house. This could have occurred in 1826 as a portrait of Richard Maunsell and his wife with some military stores was found in that year concealed in the castle.[35] The coach house was removed in the early 20th century. Today the castle protects the scenic views of the Blackwater valley. In 1798 John Drew, son of Francis Drew, saw little military value in the castle and went to Youghal to sit out the rebellion.[36]

In 1993 John Deasy, T.D., asked the then Minister for State at the Department of Finance would the Office of Public Works spend money on preserving Mocollop Castle. Minister Dempsey replied that the castle was not in state care and so could not incur state expenditure. But he recognised that the castle was an important monument and if funds would permit the state would like to take it into care.[37] Nothing became of this exchange and the castle stands alone. Yet if God be good and no great storms come to pass, Mocollop Castle should still see out many decades and centuries to come as it provides the ‘very picturesque appearance’ so admired by the Dublin Penny Journal writer of 1834.    


Conclusion of the history of Mocollop Castle


[1] R.C Simington (ed.) Civil Survey 1654-1656 County Waterford (Dublin, 1942), pp. 5, 6
[2] Denis Power & Sheila Lane (eds.), Archaeological inventory of County Cork (Stationery Office, Dublin, 2000), vol. 24, part 2, p. 699
[3] R.C Simington (ed.) Civil Survey 1654-1656 County Waterford (Dublin, 1942), pp. 5, 6
[4] Thomas Fitzpatrick, ‘Waterford during the Civil War, 1641-1653’, in the Journal of the Waterford and South East of Ireland Archaeological Society, vol. xiv (1911), p. 163
[5] Robert P. Mahaffy (ed.), Calendar of State papers, Ireland, Charles I (Kraus Reprint, Liechtenstein, 1979), vol. 3 (1647-60), pp. 74-76
[6] R.C Simington (ed.) Civil Survey 1654-1656 County Waterford, pp. 5, 6
[7] Royal Irish Academy, Ordnance Survey, Books of Inquisitions, Waterford, vol. 1, p. 257.
[8] R.C Simington (ed.) Civil Survey 1654-1656 County Waterford (Dublin, 1942), p. 4
[9] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 88
[10] Tom Barry, ‘The Munster Geraldines’, in By Bride and Blackwater (Donal de Barra, Milton Malbay, 2003), p. 82
[11] Rev. Alexander Grosart (ed.), The Lismore Papers (1888), second series, vol. V, pp. 13-16
[12] Rev. Alexander Grosart (ed.), The Lismore Papers (1888), second series, vol. V, pp. 14, 18
[13] Rev. Alexander Grosart (ed.), The Lismore Papers (1888), second series, vol. V, pp. 29-31
[14] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 88
[15] Philip D. Vigors, ‘Rebellion 1641-2 described in a letter of Rev. Urban Vigors to Rev. Henry Jones’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, second series, vol. 2 (1896), p. 304
[16] Niall Brunicardi, History of Fermoy to 1790 (no date), p. 32
[17] Patrick C. Power, History of Waterford City and County (Dungarvan, De Paor Books, 1998), p. 76
[18] Niall Brunicardi, History of Fermoy to 1790, pp. 35-8
[19] Michael Moore (ed.), Archaeological inventory of County Waterford (Dublin, 1999), p. 214
[20] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 88
[21] Rev. Samuel Hayman, The hand book of Youghal (Field, Youghal, 1973), p. 42
[22] Burke’s Landed Gentry 1958, p. 485
[23] Burke’s Irish Family Records 1976, p. 800
[24] Maurice Lenihan, History of Limerick (Limerick, 1866), p. 473
[25] Seamus Pender (ed.), A census of Ireland, 1659 (Dublin, 2002), p. 339
[26] Burke’s Irish Family Records 1976, p. 800
[27] Burke’s Irish Family Records 1976, p. 803; Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 6, p. 806
[28] Philip D. Vigors, ‘Rebellion 1641-2 described in a letter of Rev. Urban Vigors to Rev. Henry Jones’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, second series, vol. 2 (1896), p. 304
[29] Edward MacLysaght (ed.), Calendar of the Orrery papers (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1941), p. 148
[30] George Edward Cokayne (ed.), The Complete Peerage (Alan Sutton, 1987), vol. IV, p. 257, note b
[31] Burke’s Irish Family Records 1976, p. 803
[32] Maurice Lenihan, History of Limerick, p. 473
[33] Burke’s Landed Gentry 1958, p. 485
[34] Burke’s Landed Gentry 1904, p. 159
[35] Rev. Canon Patrick Power, Waterford & Lismore: a compendium history of the united diocese (Cork, 1937), p. 21
[36] Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland, vol. 6, p. 881

Friday, December 27, 2013

Mocollop Castle, Co. Waterford: A history of a medieval castle: Chapters five & six

Mocollop Castle, Co. Waterford:

A History of a Medieval Castle

Niall C.E.J. O'Brien

[Link to chapters one and two = chapters one and two]

[Link to chapters three and four = chapters three and four]

Chapter five

    Sometime before 1420 major changes occurred in the size and geographical location of the manor of Mocollop. Documentary evidence from 1420 onwards indicates two manors within the medieval parish of Mocollop. The manor of Mocollop occupied the western side of the parish and was owned by the Barry family. The area east of present Ballyduff village and directly south of the village towards Sheanmore tower house was owned by the Fitzgerald family, Earls of Desmond. At what point in time were the two manors created is as yet unknown.

Sheanmore tower house, Co. Waterford, north façade 

Further geographical changes occurred in the Mocollop area at other as yet unknown times. The manor of Mocollop acquired the additional townlands of Inchinleamy, Countygate, RaspberryHill, Knockaunroe and Cahergal in the civil parish of Leitrim. These were originally owned by the Condon family of Kilworth. The tithes of Leitrim parish were granted by the Condons to Glascarrig priory in Wexford which was founded by the family. At same time or at some other time the Condons of Kilworth expanded their area of ownerships from the present townland of Careysville eastwards along the south bank of the Blackwater. In this expansion, or series of expansions, the Condons acquired the townlands of Kilbarry, Ballydorgan, Modeligo, Kilcoran, Waterpark, Glenagurteen, Garrynagoul and Marston.

How the Condons expanded their area of ownership is unknown. The early expansion from Careysville to Kilbarry and onto Modeligo, Kilcoran and Waterpark could have been by military means. After that the Condon expansion would seem to be by purchase. If it was by military action the present boundary between Cork and Waterford would be a near straight line. But the boundary follows a great curving movement as Sheanbeg in County Waterford is surrounded on three sides by County Cork. In fact the present county boundary has frozen in time the ownership situation of around 1571. The Condons lived at Kilworth and wanted all their land in Cork while the Fitzgeralds lived in the medieval county of Waterford and so they wanted all their land in the new County Waterford and so the formation of the boundary was determined.      

Sometime between 1456 and 1460 Ellis, daughter of William de Barry, 8th Baron Barrymore married Thomas Fitz James Fitzgerald, eldest son of James Fitzgerald, 7th Earl of Desmond. William’s father John de Barry had married a daughter of a previous Earl of Desmond.

By the terms of the marriage a nice dowry came to the Fitzgeralds. The manors and property of Conna, Cooldurragh, Ballytrasna and Mocollop came to the Fitzgeralds. William de Barry reconfirmed the transfer in 1466 Thomas and Ellis.[1] By a peace agreement in the 1356 the Fitzgeralds had all ready acquired the local manors of the Barrys at Aghern, Knockmourne and Ballynoe.

The Fitzgerald hundred year quest to acquire Mocollop was now a fact. James, 7th Earl of Desmond lost no time in developing the castle. The chronicles tell us he rebuilt the castle. During the Barry period of ownership the castle had declined since the Black Death. Due to the isolated location of Mocollop, far from the centre of the Barry lordship, meant that little money was spent on Mocollop for decades.

Some people think that the rebuilding of James Fitzgerald was in fact the first building of the castle. But this can be disproved by the structure of the central keep. If 1460 was the first building then the keep would have had a stone vault over the ground floor and may be another value over an upper floor. As the present structure shows no such vault and instead shows the evidence of a flat timber floor proves the c.1220 date for the first building.

James Fitzgerald was very interested in the rebuilding of Mocollop and died there in 1462.[2] He was then buried in the South Abbey at Youghal, site of the present Presentation Convent.[3] Thomas Fitzgerald, the eldest son, became the 8th Earl of Desmond while his younger brother, Garret became ancestor of the Fitzgeralds of Dromana.[4] In 1463 Thomas Fitzgerald became deputy for the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, George of Clarence. Thomas was now head of the Dublin government and embarked on a campaign of castle building around the Leinster Pale. Meanwhile work at Mocollop continued until 1464.

Thomas Fitzgerald continued the family feud against the Butlers of Kilkenny and led campaigns against the O’Briens of Thomond. But along the way Thomas gathered powerful enemies. One of these was Queen Elizabeth Woodville. The Queen had recently married King Edward IV but her low social status and the quality of her relations were considered not fit for a king. Thomas Fitzgerald was against the marriage and the Queen did not forget this opposition. She arranged for John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester to become deputy of Ireland instead of Thomas. Tiptoft called a parliament at Drogheda in February 1468 and these arrested Thomas on a trumped up charge of treason. Before anybody could react to this charge Tiptoft had Thomas beheaded.[5] The Earl was firstly buried in St. Peter’s Church, Drogheda but was later reburied in Christ Church, Dublin.[6]

The five sons of Earl Thomas were enraged and went into rebellion. They advanced with out of Munster and almost levelled the Pale. Soon after a peace agreement was reached and compensation was given. Thomas was succeeded as earl by the eldest four of his sons. The fifth son, Gerald Oge was made Lord of Coshmore and Coshbride. This district stretched along the west bank of the River Blackwater and east of the present Cork/Waterford boundary. Places like Templemichael, Knockanore, Tallow, Lisfinny, Lismore, Sheanmore and Mocollop are all within this district. Gerald Oge made the castle of Mocollop as the headquarters of his new area.[7]

For the first time since Philip White in the late 13th century Mocollop had a resident lord. Gerald Oge lived for the next fifty years and his impact upon the manor must have been considerable, we just don’t have the documentary evidence to say what that impact was. Gerald Oge Fitzgerald was killed in 1477 or peacefully died in 1520 depending on the source you wish to believe.[8] Gerald left four sons. Each of these sons got a part of Coshmore and Coshbride as their own place. Of course the earl of Desmond was still the owner of the whole region and the local Fitzgeralds had the place on long term leases. This fact would be of importance 65 years later when all the property of the then 15th Earl of Desmond was seized after his rebellion including Coshmore/Coshbride.

James the eldest got Mocollop; Maurice the second son got Sheanmore, while Thomas the next son got Kilmacow. The last son, John, got Strancally and Lisfinny but when he died in 1550 leaving a twelve year old son, the 15th Earl of Desmond seized the two manors and carried young Thomas into prison where he died in 1554.[9]

Chapter six

    The Fitzgeralds were like other landlords and enjoyed the pleasures of their estate income. Other people actually did the day to day working at Mocollop. The seneschal was the chief estate officer while the chief officer of the castle was the constable. It would appear that in the 16th century the one person held both offices at Mocollop. The family of McGrath held the office of constable through many generations. This family settled in Waterford in the first half of the fifteenth century and made the area around Slieve Gua (between Dungarvan and Clonmel). An altar tomb of Donal McGrath was built in the Augustinian Abbey at Abbeyside in 1470.[10]

A descendent of Donal was John McGrath who was constable of Mocollop in the 1530s. John had at least two sons of which Donal McGrath of Mountain Castle was one. This man died in 1548 and the altar tomb in St. Carthage’s cathedral, Lismore is his commission. The other son was John McGrath and his wife was Ellen Prendergast, both of whom are buried in the Lismore altar tomb.[11]

McGrath tomb in Lismore Cathedral of St. Carthage 

John of Lismore had a son called John Oge McGrath and he was constable of Mocollop in the 1560s. He was removed after the battle of Affane in 1565 when forces of the Butlers of Ormond were at Mocollop. They were shortly removed by the government as it tried to gain control over Munster in the private war between the Fitzgeralds and Butlers.

By 1568 the Fitzgeralds had recovered Mocollop. Eleanor, Countess of Desmond managed the Fitzgerald property when her husband the 15th Earl was in jail in England. On 18 November 1568 the Earl sent her a letter directing that “the bearer John Oge McGrath was to be reinstated in the custody of the manor of Mokawllopoie in the County of Waterford … and that Donnachadh McGrath was to deliver the said manor and castle to his father, John McGrath”.[12]

It would appear that the Earl of Desmond had assumed direct ownership of Mocollop around this time. An inquisition taken in 1572 found the Earl had possession of Mocollop as early as 1565. Thomas Fitzgerald of Kilmacow Castle acted as seneschal for the Earl at that time. We further learn that the Mocollop Fitzgeralds held the lands of Bridane, Ballyforge and White’s Town on the River Bride.[13]

The detached portion of Mocollop manor is of interest. Medieval estates were rarely co-terminus. Farm fragmentation was a very common situation. The said townlands lying on the navigable River Bride would suggest that they were used by Mocollop as the port of that manor. This situation is reflected on a grander scale in Leinster. The liberty of Carlow held New Ross as its port while the lordship of Dunamase in Laois had Bannow in Wexford as its port and owned the port.

James Fitzgerald, eldest son of Gerald Oge Fitzgerald had inherited Mocollop from his father in 1477 or more possibly 1520. As the eldest son he also became Lord of Coshmore and Coshbride. James of Mocollop died in 1557 leaving four sons. The eldest son, Maurice Fitzgerald, inherited Mocollop and became Lord of Coshmore/Coshbride. His brother, Gerald ‘Brack’ Fitz James served as Dean of Lismore (1564-1583) without ever becoming a cleric and got the job when he was only a boy. Another brother was Thomas ‘Brack’ Fitz James who was the father of John Mac Thomas Brack. The fourth son of James of Mocollop was called John.[14]

The aforementioned 1572 inquisition tells us that James Fitzgerald of Mocollop had died. At first impression it would seem his heir must have been under age and this was way the Earl had assumed direct control. But Maurice, the eldest son must have been over 40 in 1572 as his son James was of military age in the first Desmond rebellion. The assumption of control by the Earl must have occurred for another reason. This reason would seem to be because of disobedience.

In 1565 Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana wanted to throw off any feudal obligations to the Earl of Desmond. This disobedience cause the Earl to into west Waterford with an army in 1565 and a battle ensured at Affane. Maurice Fitzgerald as Lord of Mocollop was in the pathway of Desmond’s army and may have refused the Earl a right to pass through Mocollop. Maurice may also have sympathised with Fitzgerald of Dromana and could have had ambitions to become more independent. This independence was against the earl’s rights and was not acceptable; hence the Earl assumed direct control of Mocollop.

Yet peaceful times were not restored for long. The first Desmond rebellion started in the summer of 1569. The claim by Sir Peter Carew to the land of Coshbride was one of the causes of the war.[15]

By 1571 English forces had defeated the Irish in many parts of Ireland. The Earl of Ormond, Thomas ‘Black Tom’ Butler, cousin of Queen Elizabeth and lifelong schemer against the Desmonds advanced into Munster. Moving through west Waterford and up the Blackwater he was joined by Sir Thomas Roe Fitzgerald of Conna.[16]

Sir Thomas was a son of the 14th Earl of Desmond by his first wife, Joan, daughter of Maurice Lord Roche, Viscount Fermoy and should have become the next Earl on his father’s death. But the 14th earl divorced his first wife and married Mór O’Carroll by whom he had Gerald Fitzgerald among other children. The old Earl declared his first marriage illegal and the children of same were declared illegitimate and so Gerald became 15th earl of Desmond. In compensation Sir Thomas Roe got the manor of Conna. He was knighted by the English in 1569.[17]

South façade of Conna tower house, County Cork

But Conna was of little compensation and when rebellion broke out Thomas Roe fought on the English side. As the Earl of Ormond advanced on Mocollop in 1571 Thomas Roe came to help. Together they besieged the castle. Sir James Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald defended the castle instead of his father. Many local lords adopted this approach whereby the son went out in rebellion while the father stayed at peace. This was to ensure the survival of the family estate. In was normal practice for any person who rebelled against the crown to have their lands forfeited to the crown as punishment. The later acquisition of land by Oliver Cromwell from the defeated Irish in the 1650s was simply a continuation of established practice.

James Fitz Maurice surrendered Mocollop to the Earl of Ormond on 4 May 1571. The castle was then possibly occupied by some of Ormond’s troops while the Earl moved on into County Cork. James Fitz Maurice displayed the personae of a loyal citizen until the main army was well gone. He then assembled an armed force and went off to attack Conna tower house. Thomas Roe was gone off with the Earl of Ormond yet still the tower was well defended. James Fitz Maurice killed 40 of Thomas Roe’s troops and captured another 16. He then had two captains of the gallowglass hanged for their part in attacking Mocollop.[18] After having got his own back on the neighbours James once again adopted the loyal citizen personae. On 8 December 1572 he submitted to the English commander, Lord Bourchier.[19]

In 1573 Rory McShane McGrath, constable of Lisfinny tower house and son of John McGrath, constable of Mocollop, successfully attacked Conna tower house.[20] It was August 1574 before Sir Thomas Roe recovered Conna after Rory’s defeat near Clonmel.[21]

During the 1570s pardons were given out by the Dublin government in an attempt to restore some sort of peace. The political situation was still uncertain. Intermittent military activity occurred across the province followed by peace once a large English force had arrived at the flash point. On 15 February 1577 Maurice Fitz James Fitzgerald and his two sons, Gerald and James, received a pardon for fraternising with those causing unrest.[22]

Meanwhile the Earl of Desmond had many enemies within the English government and many across the country who sought to undo the Earl for their own gain. In September 1574 the Earl passed his vast estates into the hands of trustees in an effort to secure his inheritance should anything further go wrong. The trustees were James Butler, Lord Dunboyne, John Power, Lord Curraghmore and John Fitz Edmund Fitzgerald of Cloyne. The manor of Mocollop was one of the properties given to the trustees by the Earl’s bailiffs. Over seeing the transfer of Mocollop was John Sinnott, Maurice Fitzgerald, John Oge McGrath, Charles Boy and Nicholas Roche.[23]  

For many years the 15th Earl of Desmond was away from Munster for too long in English jails and other people assumed leadership of the province and would not give up their newly acquired power. Sir Maurice of Desmond was one such person and in 1579 he brought Spanish troops into Kerry. The Earl of Desmond was instructed to defeat these forces but could not muster his troops to do so. The Dublin government declared the Earl to be a rebel and the second Desmond War began. 

The war effectively ended with the death of the 15th Earl of Desmond on a hill side near Tralee in November 1583 but military operations continued for a few more weeks. There were still members of the Fitzgerald family who could have assumed leadership of the Desmond Earldom but the English had had enough of Desmond Earls. They had the entire Earldom seized as forfeited land including Mocollop.

In the spring of 1584 surveyors travelled across Munster mapping the province and establishing who owned what property.[24]

In 1586, Sir Walter Raleigh got 42,000 acres stretching from Youghal to Cappoquin and onto Lismore with land along the Bride River including Tallow, Lisfinny, Mogeely and Conna. Not only did Sir Walter get all this land when the largest grant to each planter was suppose to be 12,000 acres but he got a good deal on the crown rent also. The rent he should have paid to the crown was £233 6s 6d but Sir Walter got he lot for £66 6s 8d rent per year.[25]

The manor of Mocollop was not initially assigned to Raleigh but if he could not find 42,000 in the initially area described above then Mocollop along with the lands of Patrick Condon adjoining to the west (i.e. Waterpark, Kilcoran, Marston, Garrynagoul, Modeligo, etc.).[26] Thomas Fleetwood was to get Mocollop along with the Condon lands around Kilworth instead and other lands around Kilwatermoy.[27] But Fleetwood didn't have the court connections to secure possession.

The north-east tower of Mocollop castle showing the north façade (left) and the west façade (right)

On 28 February 1587 Sir Walter Raleigh was granted Mocollop Castle and lands to hold in fee farm forever. To help Raleigh to get better title to Mocollop three members of the Fitzgerald family of Mocollop were attained for rebellion. They were Gerald ‘Brack’ Fitz James (ex dean of Lismore) and his brother Thomas ‘Brack’ Fitz James and Thomas’s son, John Mac Thomas ‘Brack’ Fitzgerald.[28]

Mocollop was described as a castle, a town and five ploughlands.[29] The usual notion is that a ploughland corresponds to about 120 statute acres. If this is so then Mocollop should be of 600 acres. But this is a wrong assumption. A statute acre is s set geographical area without any room for variation. A ploughland is not a measure of geographical area but a measure of land quality for arable production. Other types of land such as pasture, meadow and wood was regarded as extra ground to the arable land. A measure of five ploughlands for Mocollop appears to be a good measure. This would suggest that a good part of the manor was farmland despite a substantial part of the manor been composed of high country.

Sir Walter Raleigh was instructed to settle English people across his new lands. In 1592 he leased Mocollop to George Conyers. A descendent of George was another George Conyers of the 1690s who acquired land in County Limerick. The Conyers married into the Drew family in 1872.[30]

When George Conyers took Mocollop it consisted of the castle, town and land. Also included was a mill. Since the early Norman period a mill was in the manor of Mocollop as was the custom in nearly every manor. In rare occasions a manor used the mill of a neighbouring manor. The presence of a mill coupled with the high ploughland measure suggests arable farming was carried on in a larges scale.

In 1595 Hugh O’Neill began what became known as the Nine Years War. The war took off in Munster in 1597. Thomas Norris, the English commander in Munster, wanted to advance against the Irish in the Aherlow Valley in Tipperary but he could only muster 700 poorly trained troops against an Irish army of about 8,000 soldiers and 1,000 horse troops. Norris also got poor supported from the new English settlers with only four lords bringing ten men. With little prospect of reinforcements from England Norris distributed arms to the settlers and left every man to take care of his own defence.

In 1598 O’Neill sent Captain Richard Tyrrell into Munster with 2,000 horse troops and they besieged the major towns like Kilmallock, Limerick, Cork and Waterford. On 6 October Munster arose in rebellion. The Earl of Desmond, James Fitz Thomas Fitzgerald (son of Thomas Roe of Conna) attacked the settler homesteads and tower houses. Hedgerows and mills were destroyed. Those settlers who made resistance were killed. Most of the other settlers were sent naked to the port towns with their property destroyed behind them.[31] Mr. Duff lost Sheanmore tower house to the Shean Fitzgeralds while James Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald recovered the ancestral home of Mocollop Castle.[32] By December the Munster Plantation was finished and the province was virtually in Irish hands.

The Earl of Essex was sent over to recover the situation but his army was destroyed in the series of small engagements. After Essex left Ireland James Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, the Sugán Earl and one of the chief rebels, met Henry Pyne of Mogeely Castle at Mocollop. The two had a long conversation about the war and the political situation. Fitzgerald offered to lay down his arms in return for the Earldom of Desmond and all its ancient lands. The two had a further meeting at Castlelyons where Pyne asked Fitzgerald to surrender and that he had Fitzgerald’s corn in safe keeping at Mogeely.[33] The talks came to no conclusion and war was resumed.

In November 1600 Henry Pyne of Mogeely Castle petitioned the government to station troops in the castles of Dromana, Lisfinny, Kilmacow, Sheanmore and Mocollop. Pyne would act as commander for all these garrisons. But the government had insufficient troops to attack and garrison these castles and declined the offer.[34]

Late in 1600 Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, was sent over to Ireland and the Irish had met their match. In September 1601 Spanish forces landed at Kinsale and O’Neill marched south to meet his allies. But Lord Mountjoy slowed his progress while building trenches around Kinsale to box in the Spanish. The Battle of Kinsale lasted three months with victory for the English.

Famine, plague and lawlessness spread across Munster as the English recovered the captured castles. They gave pardons to many Irish lords to speed up the process of recaptured. On 26 January 1602 a pardon was granted to James Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald of Mocollop, Mór ny Brien his wife and to Maurice Fitz Maurice his brother. His kinsman, Garret Fitz Maurice, grandson of the former chancellor of Lismore also got a pardon.[35] A further pardon was given to Garret Fitz James Fitzgerald for the surrender of Sheanmore.[36]

On 7 December 1602 Sir Walter Raleigh sold his entire Irish estate to Sir Richard Boyle for £1,500. Later in November 1603 Raleigh was charged with treason and so Boyle got further rights including the fishing on the Blackwater River from Glenmore near Mocollop to Youghal.[37] George Conyers still kept the lease for Mocollop under his new landlord.[38] But a few years later in 1611 the government had taken direct control of Mocollop and the manor because of uncertainty over Boyle’s title.[39]

We mentioned earlier how Mocollop was an extra piece of land given to Raleigh to make up the 42,000 acres of his royal grant. Somebody, possibly James Fitz Maurice, had informed the government that Raleigh had more than enough land to make up 42,000 acres without the inclusion of Mocollop. Sir Richard Boyle was good friends with Lord Deputy Chichester and soon after Mocollop was restored to his ownership. 


To be continued 


[1] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 5, p. 398
[2] Maurice Geary, Ballyduff G.A.A. History 1886-1989 (Litho, 1989), p. 13
[3] Rev. Samuel Hayman, The hand book of Youghal (Field, Youghal, 1973), p. xvi
[4] Ann Chambers, Eleanor Countess of Desmond (Wolfhound, Dublin, 2000), pp. 238-9
[5] Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 7, p. 147
[6] George Edward Cokayne (ed.), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (Alan Sutton, Gloucester, 1987), vol. IV, p. 248
[7] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of North-East Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Historical and archaeological Society, vol. 24, p. 2
[8] George Edward Cokayne (ed.), The Complete Peerage, vol. IV, p. 248
[9] Kieran Heffernan and Friedrich Billensteiner, The History of Strancally Castle and the Valley of the Blackwater between Lismore and Youghal (Authors, 1997), p. 16
[10] William Fraher, ‘McGrath’s castle of Abbeyside, Dungarvan’, in Decies, no. 49, p. 38
[11] Rev. Canon Power, Lismore-Mochuda: an historical sketch of Lismore parish (Dublin, 1946), p. 32
[12] Rev. Canon Power, Place-names of Decies (Cork, 1952), p. 52; G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of North-East Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, vol. 24, p. 3
[13] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 417
[14] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 3
[15] Richard Berleth, The Twilight Lords (Barnes Noble, New York, 1994), pp. 52-3
[16] Tom Barry, ‘The Munster Geraldines’, in By Bride and Blackwater (Donal de Barra, Milton Malbay, 2003), p. 78
[17] Tom Barry, ‘The Munster Geraldines’, in By Bride and Blackwater, pp. 74, 78
[18] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 3
[19] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 88
[20] Conna Community Council, Conna in history and tradition (1998), p. 7
[21] Michael Desmond, Ballymacarbery and Fourmilewater 1650-1850 (2004), pp. 5, 7
[22] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 3
[23] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 482
[24] Richard Berleth, The Twilight Lords, p. 225
[25] Robert Day (ed.), ‘Historical notes of the County and City of Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, series 1, vol. 1 (1892), p. 6
[26] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 2 (1575-1588), p. 452
[27] John T. Collins (ed.), ‘Fiants of Queen Elizabeth relating to the City and County of Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 45, pp. 129-30, fiant no. 5033; G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 88
[28] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, pp. 3, 4
[29] Rev. Samuel Hayman, The hand book of Youghal, p. 17
[30] Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1904, p. 159
[31] Richard Berleth, The Twilight Lords, pp. 277-9
[32] Maurice Geary, Ballyduff G.A.A. History 1886-1989 (Litho, 1989), p. 13
[33] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 4 (1601-1603), p. 79
[34] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 3 (1589-1600), p. 477
[35] W.H. Grattan Flood, ‘Lismore During Reign of Elizabeth’, in Journal of the Waterford and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society, vol. 10 (1907), p. 138
[36] W.H. Grattan Flood, ‘Lismore During Reign of Elizabeth’, in Journal of the Waterford and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society, vol. 10 (1907), p. 136
[37] Rev. Samuel Hayman, The hand book of Youghal, p. 20
[38] Rev. Samuel Hayman, The hand book of Youghal, p. 18
[39] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 6 (1603-1624), p. 257