Thursday, September 16, 2021

Dunhill Tower House, Co. Waterford


Dunhill Tower House, Co. Waterford

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien


The tower house at Dunhill lies in the townland of Dunhill in the parish of Dunhill which is in the barony of Middlethird, County Waterford. Dunhill tower house is situated at the tip of a spur of a high ridge bounded on the east by the Annestown stream and bounded on the west by another stream in a ravine. The name Dunhill was spelt Donoil in medieval times from the Irish Dun Áil which means fort on the cliff. The rectangular tower house with a base batter measures 10.5m E-W and 9.55m N-S and survives to first floor level on the west side. The corners still display some cut stone quoins to first floor level. The first floor displays few architectural features except for traces of embrasures on the north, south and west walls. The ground floor chamber has three embrasures (one with a wicker centering) with the lights largely destroyed.[1]

West gable of Dunhill tower house

No date of construction of the tower house is known. Tower houses as a structure begin to be constructed from the 1440s and continued into the early decades of the seventeenth century. Most tower houses are possibly constructed in the first half of the sixteenth century. The absent of any fireplaces or garderobes at Dunhill suggest that it was an early construction, possibly late fifteenth century. A small bawn (diameter of c.10m N-S and 10m E-W) surrounds the tower house on the east and south sides with the remains of a secondary building in the south-east corner. 

Interior of north wall at Dunhill

The area around Dunhill was given to the Power or le de Poer family in the late twelfth century and became the caput of Robert le Poer, the senior of three brothers who came over from Somerset in England to colonise Ireland after the Norman invasion. Robert le Poer (d.1177) was succeeded by Robert (d.1228). In the early thirteenth century King John granted the barony of Dunhill to Henry le Poer, son of Philip le Poer of St. Laurence in Pembrokeshire.[2] This appears to be one of those speculative grants by King John. Later Robert le Poer, son of the first Robert le Poer, recovered Dunhill. Robert le Poer was the father of John (d.1243) who was the father of John II (living 1260) and Robert (d.1249).[3] The family possibly built a small castle on the site of the later tower house or somewhere in the locality. John II le Poer was the father of Peter and Matthew (ancestor of the Power family of Curraghmore). Peter le Poer was described as baron of Donoil in 1283 when he died from drowning while crossing the Irish Sea to Wales leaving a two year old son, John III as his heir.[4] In 1305 John III fitz Peter le Poer, baron of Dunoil, was appointed sheriff of Co. Waterford.[5] During the period 1307-1314 John le Poer, baron of Donoil, received £100 for sending troops to Scotland to fight for King Edward II.[6] John III le Poer (d.1329) was the father of Peter (d.1328) and John IV. Peter le Poer (killed in the Desmond wars) was the father of John V le Poer (d.1361) who came of age in 1344 and was exiled to France with the Earl of Kildare.[7] 

Interior view of the west wall at Dunhill

John V le Poer was the father of Eustace le Poer (d.1355) and Ismania le Poer, wife of Nicholas de Bekensfield. In 1361 Nicholas de Bekensfield was a follower of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, when the latter came to Ireland.[8] Although Nicholas de Benesfield was married to Ismania le Poer he took little interest in his Irish property being described in 1368 as an absentee landlord. With the failure of male heirs Dunhill and the baronage of Dunoil passed to the heirs of John IV le Poer through his son, Eustace and grandson John VI le Poer who 1375 was named baron of Donoil.[9] It is said that the Powers of Dunhill were killed in battle at Tramore in 1368 and so the estate passed to the Kilmeaden branch of the family. Instead it was a combination of the male heirs dying out at Dunhill and Bekensfield losing Dunhill because he was an absentee landlord. In 1380 Nicholas FitzJohn le Poer of Kilmeaden, a descendent of William le Poer (living 1172 and brother of Robert of Dunhill) was summoned to the Irish Parliament as Nicholas le Poer of Kilmeaden, feudal lord of Doniol.[10]

View of Dunhill from the south

Dunhill was given to a junior branch of the Kilmeaden family. Although east Waterford had many different Power family’s claiming descent from the three brothers of the time of King Henry II, the genealogy of these families is unclear until Tudor times. In the 1420s Milo le Poer (also called Power as the surname changed form), baron of Dunhill, was one of the collectors in County Waterford of a parliamentary subsidy granted to the lord deputy.[11] In the mid fifteenth century the male lineage of the barons of Dunhill ended with Milo le Poer as the last baron. Milo was succeeded at Dunhill by his natural son, Nicholas le Poer. By 1463 Nicholas had six sons (William, Maurice and Robert along with Piers of Gilcagh, Thomas and Nicholas), possibly from two marriages, who had administration of the Dunhill estate. In 1493 the six sons were sort of administrating the estate as they challenged a grant they made in 1463 of property in Islandikane and Ballydermody to William Wyse. An act of parliament in 1493 gave the land in question to William Wyse which was reconfirmed in 1528 in opposition to Nicholas Fitzthomas le Poer (son of one of the six brothers).[12] A trustee of the 1528 settlement was Nicholas Power, lord of Kilmeaden.[13]

View of the south-west corner at Dunhill

In the decades around 1500 somebody of consequence built the present tower house at Dunhill. In the sixteenth century the Power family at Dunhill seems to have kept a low profile as they are rarely mentioned in the records. In the 1570s Robert Power of Kilmeaden was listed among the principal gentlemen of County Waterford with no reference to Dunhill.[14] In 1617 Nicholas Power held Dunhill castle and the surrounding estate.[15] In 1640 John Power held Dunhill castle (more correctly referred to as a tower house). John Power held a court leet and a court baron on his manor of Dunhill and was owner of about half the parish of Dunhill with further property in adjacent parishes. The same John Power also held the Kilmeaden estate of his ancestors. Although he held the manor courts of leet and baron at Kilmeaden the estate was left neglected as the tower house there was in ruins.[16] Have said that in 1646 when John Power was given freedom of Waterford city he described himself as John Power of Kilmeaden.[17] 

Interior view of west wall at Dunhill

The Dunhill tower house fell to Cromwellian forces in 1649-50 and was possibly partly destroyed. Legend says that Lady Power was in command of the defences and gave a gunner buttermilk instead of beer, and in disgust, the gunner opened the gates and left in the Cromwellian soldiers for which act he was rewarded by being hanged. In later times some of its stone work was removed to build houses in the locality. In 1912 a storm caused much of the east side of the tower to collapse.

The open east side of Dunhill

Charles Smith said that the Act of Settlement of 1666 restored John Power to his property at Dunhill but the estate later passed out of the family.[18] Other sources say that John Power lost all his property and none of it was restored Under Charles II.[19] Sir John Cole acquired the Dunhill estate while Henry Nicoll received the Kilmeaden estate. John Power does not appear in the list of transplanted landowners and appears to have stay in east County Waterford. It is said that John Power of Dunhill had at least three sons; William, Pierce and Nicholas but the genealogists differ on this. William Power was grandfather of William Power of Knockaderry (part of the old Kilmeaden estate) which property was held by leasehold as the family remain Roman Catholic, and ancestor of the Power family of Bellevue House near Slieverue and Faithlegg House, south-east of Waterford.[20] In the 1850s Rev. John B. Palliser was the owner of Dunhill.


The south-west corner of Dunhill

Steps up to the south-east bawn

South wall of secondary building in south-east bawn

Artist view of the tower house south-east view point


Views from Dunhill tower house

View south to the sea at Annestown

View eastwards from Dunhill

View northwards from Dunhill

View of south-west corner from the cliff base

Another view eastwards from Dunhill

West gable at Dunhill


End of post



[1] Moore, Michael (ed.), Archaeological Inventory of County Waterford (Dublin, 1999), p. 224, no. 1609

[2] article ‘De le Poer Beresford of Curraghmore, Co. Waterford’

[3] Parker, Ciaran, ‘Paterfamilias and parentela: the le Poer lineage in fourteenth-century Waterford’, in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 95C (1995), pp. 93-117, at p. 95

[4] Parker, Ciaran, ‘Paterfamilias and parentela: the le Poer lineage in fourteenth-century Waterford’, in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 95C (1995), pp. 93-117, at p. 97

[5] accessed 15th September 2021

[6] Connolly, Philomena, ‘List of Irish entries on the memoranda rolls of the English Exchequer, 1307-27’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 36 (1995), pp. 163-218, at p. 202

[7] Parker, Ciaran, ‘Paterfamilias and parentela: the le Poer lineage in fourteenth-century Waterford’, in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 95C (1995), pp. 93-117, at p. 113

[8] Dryburgh, Paul & Smith, Brendan (eds.), Handbook and Select Calendar of Sources for Medieval Ireland in the National Archives of the United Kingdom (Dublin, 2005), p. 313

[9] Parker, Ciaran, ‘Paterfamilias and parentela: the le Poer lineage in fourteenth-century Waterford’, in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 95C (1995), pp. 93-117, at p. 115

[10] The Complete Peerage (Gloucester, 1987), vol. X, p. 565

[11] Richardson, H.G., & Sayles, G.O. (eds.), Parliaments and Councils of Mediaeval Ireland, volume 1 (Dublin, 1947), pp. 136, 159

[12] Waterford City Museum, Wyse collection 2012, document number 5, 6, 11

[13] This Nicholas le Poer of Kilmeaden was the son of Walter and grandson of John of Kilmeaden (living 1471)

[14] O’Dowd, Mary (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1571-1575 (Dublin, 2000), no. 796

[15] Brewer, J.S., & Bullen, William (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts preserved in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth (London, 1873, reprint Liechtenstein, 1974), p. 341

[16] Simington, Robert (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford Vol. VI with appendices: Muskerry barony, Co. Cork; Kilkenny City and Liberties (part) also valuations, circa 1663-4 for Waterford and Cork Cities (Dublin, 1942), pp. 132, 138, 147

[17] Byrne, Niall (ed.), The Great Parchment Book of Waterford: Liber Antiquissimus Civitatis Waterfordiae (Dublin, 2007), p. 269

[18] Brady, Donal (ed.), Charles Smith’s The ancient and present state of the County and City of Waterford (Dungarvan, 2008), p. 64

[19] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976 (reprint 2007), p. 963

[20] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976 (reprint 2007), pp. 963, 964

Monday, September 13, 2021

Tullaghorton Church and Parish, Co. Tipperary


Tullaghorton Church and Parish, Co. Tipperary

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien


Tullaghorton civil parish lies in the barony of Iffa and Offa West on the southern boundary of Tipperary with County Waterford. Indeed the southern boundary of the parish is the county boundary. The parish contains 2,905 acres consisting of good tillage ground and the northern slopes of the Knockmealdown Mountains where peat was formerly harvested. The name Tullaghorton means Ortan’s Height but the long passage of time has obliterated the memory of who was Ortan.[1] The rectory and vicarage of the parish was long attached to Lismore cathedral where the rectory formed one of the permanent prebend parishes and the vicarage was in the patronage of the bishop. The rector, called the prebendary, was a canon in Lismore cathedral and collected most of the parish tithes for his own use. The vicar received a portion of the tithes for which he performed most of the spiritual needs of the parish and was usually in residence.[2]  

Castlegrace castle - NW of the church

Before the Norman invasion of 1169 southern Tipperary and County Waterford formed part of the kingdom known as Déise Muman. As Tullaghorton lies at the north end of a north-south valley leading up through the Knockmealdown Mountains from Lismore at the southern end, the parish could have formed part of the property of the medieval bishops of Lismore. Prebendary parishes sometimes, though not always, were formed out of areas where the local bishop was the majority landowner such as at Clashmore, Donoughmore and Dysert/Killotteran. On the other hand the parish may have been formed by the person who built the early thirteenth century castle at Castlegrace which lies to the south-west of the parish church. The castle builder (Philip of Worcester), or his successors, could have granted the parish to Lismore cathedral to form a prebendary parish.  

In 1185 King John commissioned the construction of castles at Ardfinnan and Tibberaghny seemingly to protect the northern boundary of Waterford with Philip de Worcester holding the former and William de Burgh the latter.[3] Philip de Worcester gained possession not just of Ardfinnan but the surrounding cantred of Ardfinnan, later called Offa, which included the future parish of Tullaghorton along with other parts of modern County Tipperary. In 1194-1204 Philip granted various places in Offa to Gerald FitzMaurice.[4] In 1225 William of Worcester was granted four cantreds in Tipperary, including Offa, which were previously held by his uncle.[5] It is possible that William enlarged the castle built by Philip at Castlegrace. The south-west tower and two-thirds of the west wall are of earlier date to the north-west tower with a clear division line showing on the western wall. Perhaps the dispassion of Philip de Worcester by King John in 1201 prevented Philip from finishing Castlegrace.[6] In the fourteenth century Castlegrace was owned by the Butler family and remained part of the estate of the Butler’s of Cahir castle until the nineteenth century. In the 1830’s the seneschal for the Earl of Glengall still held manorial courts in the parish.[7] The Grubb family, who lived in nearly Castlegrace house, turned the castle into a walled garden in the early nineteenth century.

Tullaghorton church ivy covered in overgrown graveyard seen from the north

By 1259 Tullaghorton was a parish called Hotheratha.[8] For some years the archbishop of Cashel wanted all the parishes of south Tipperary to be transferred from the diocese of Lismore to the archdiocese but the bishop of Lismore offered effective resistance and so south Tipperary is today still part of the diocese of Lismore. In about 1300 the parish of Tullaghorton was worth £8 in the papal taxation giving it a tax bill of 16s.[9] This placed the parish in the above average valuation for parishes in the diocese of Lismore.

The parish church of Tullaghorton lies in the centre of a roughly rectangular graveyard in the townland of Castlegrace. The masonry of the church appears to be thirteenth century with window embrasures from the fourteenth or fifteenth century. The church was dedicated to St. John the Baptist but it is unknown how old the dedication is. The rectangular graveyard would suggest a Norman establishment as earlier church sites were located in circular enclosures. The external dimensions of the church are 21m East-West and 6.5m North-South with walls 0.86m thick and extending to 3m in height. Canon Patrick Power considered the church to be over average in size and this possibly is fitting for a prebendary church attached to Lismore cathedral.[10] The gable ends are intact but the west gable is titling outwards. The north wall is runs the full length of the building but varies in height. The south wall survives only at the east and west ends with a large part of the central section reduced to near foundation levels. The west gable has a flat-headed single light with limestone and sandstone jambs and an external chamfer. The east gable has a two-light ogee window with a largely missing central mullion. The window has an external chamfer and internal rebate with inward spraying embrasures.[11] The east window is not centrally placed in the gable end being about a quarter meter towards the north-west corner.

The north wall has a doorway about 7m from the west gable with only the lower doorjamb stones surviving. The opposite south doorway is much destroyed with only traces of the west doorjamb. At the east end of the north wall (about 2.5m from the east gable) is the remains of a window much destroyed. The south wall has an opposite window with surviving embrasure of the west side but in both cases the window itself has been broken out.[12] The interior of the church is much overgrown and so it is difficult to see if any church features remain or if any obvious division separated the nave from the chancel area.  

The roughly rectangular surrounding graveyard, which extends slightly in the north-west corner, is separated from the public road its north side by about 21m of land forming part of the surrounding field and passageway. A single story house with a chimney in the east gable stands to the east of a gateway leading to the graveyard. The house was possibly used as a guard house for the graveyard to prevent body snatchers.

Prebendaries and vicars

We don’t know the names of the prebendaries and vicars of Tullaghorton until the early fifteenth century. In 1437 Tullaghorton parish was part of the deanery of Ardfinnan and the prebend paid 1s 8d in procurations to the archbishop of Cashel when the latter visited the diocese. The vicar of Tullaghorton paid ten pence.[13] Although there was not set rule for how much each parish paid in procurations, that paid by Tullaghorton was at the lowest level among the Lismore parishes.

Sometime before 1449 John Iffyrnussii (also spelt Yhynnous) held Tullaghorton prebend and a canonry in Lismore cathedral until his death. He was succeeded by David O’Dubly as prebend with Maurice O’Ronan as vicar. Maurice was also vicar of the neighbouring parish of Tubrid. In April 1449 Maurice petitioned Rome that David O’Dubly had committed perjury and simony while prebend of Tullaghorton and had dilapidated the goods of the parish for his own use. The abbot of Mothel was asked to investigate the matter, and if true, grant the canonry and prebend to Maurice.[14] These accusations were a standard formula before about 1480 for one cleric to deprive another of a parish or cathedral position. At this distance from the events of 1449 it is impossible to say if the accusations are truthful or false. Considering that the next petitioner for Tullaghorton made no mention of David O’Dubly or Maurice O’Ronan it is possible that the accusations were false and Maurice Stack didn’t want them to weaken his own case. In 1449 the value of the canonry and prebend was five marks while the united vicarage was eight marks.[15]

East gable from the south

In October 1468 Maurice Stack, a cleric of Ardfert diocese, petitioned Rome for Tullaghorton, which was then worth six marks. Maurice said that he was given Tullaghorton a few years before 1468 by the bishop of Lismore and that this was confirmed by Rome as a successor to John Iffyrnussii. But, by a provincial statute in the archdiocese of Cashel, Maurice’s title was unsound and he petitioned Rome to again confirm him to the parish.[16] The said statute was that a month after its publication, the diocesan clergy were to put away their concubines. Yet Maurice Stack opening lived with his woman for several years and had children by her. Now by October 1468 Maurice had separated from his woman and wished to get papal confirmation that he could continue to hold Tullaghorton. The archdeacon of Lismore was to absolve Maurice of his sins and, after some penance, confirm the canonry and prebend.[17] In 1480 it was said that Maurice Stack held Tullaghorton for seventeen to eighteen years.[18]

In the 1470s Gerald John Fitzgerald is said to have held the prebend of Tullaghorton, with the canonry in Lismore cathedral. Shortly before 1480 Gerald resigned Tullaghorton on entering religious orders.[19] In the summer of 1480 it was said that the archdeaconry of Lismore (unlawfully held for nine to ten years by James Tobin) and Tullaghorton prebend (held by Maurice Stack) were both vacant and there collation had fallen to Rome. William Mandeville, a clerk of the diocese and lately dispensed by Rome as the son of a knight and an unmarried woman, petitioned for the two benefices.[20] The archdeaconry of Lismore was worth thirty-four marks and the prebendary worth only six marks with its canonry in Lismore cathedral.[21] The abbots of Fermoy and Bridgetown along with John White, a canon in Cloyne diocese, were to judge who had proper claim.[22] It would appear that William Mandeville was successful and acquired both benefices.

Sometime before April 1489 Walter Butler, a cleric in the diocese of Lismore, was given dispensation by Bishop Thomas Purcell to receive minor orders and hold a benefice on account of Walter’s illegitimacy as the son of a married man and an unmarried woman. Afterwards the bishop granted Walter a canonry in Lismore cathedral and the prebend of Tullaghorton which was vacant for several years. Walter Butler said he received only a small portion of the parish tithes as the larger part was collected by William Mandeville, the former holder of Tullaghorton (the prebend then worth ten marks). In the spring of 1489 Walter Butler petitioned Rome for redress. In April 1489 the pope appointed three judges, the abbot of Mothel Abbey, the dean of Ossory and William O’Morrissey, a cleric of Ossory, to adjudicate on the matter and give Tullaghorton to Walter if everything was in order.[23]

East window at Tullaghorton 

It would appear that Walter Butler was unsuccessful at acquiring the prebend and was instead given the position of vicar of the two parishes of Tubrid and Tullaghorton along with a canonry in Lismore cathedral. But Walter was still unsatisfied and in 1494 again petitioned for the prebend while seeking to retain the joint vicarage.[24] It is not known if Walter was successful as paying the first year of parish dues to Rome, the annatis, was no guarantee of longer term acquisition and retention. After Walter Butler there is a long gap in the records until 1588 when the Edmond Prendergast held the prebendary while James Butler was vicar of Tullaghorton.[25]

After 1534

In the centuries after the Protestant Reformation, Tullaghorton was retained as a prebend parish with a prebendary seat in Lismore cathedral. The church building and the adjoining land became the property of the new Church of Ireland. With few Protestant parishes, and a lack of desire on the part of the new clergy to retain standing structures, the medieval church was allowed to fall into ruins. In 1836 the prebend of Tullaghorton was suspended on the resignation of William Stephenson. Later Rev. John Jackson was elect by the cathedral chapter to fill the unendowed stall but when Jackson died in 1872 the prebendary was allowed to lapse.[26] In 1836 the vicarage of Tullaghorton was also suspended with the vicars of neighbouring Shanrahan serving the parish. In 1871 Tullaghorton vicarage was formerly united to Shanrahan parish.[27] In the reorganisation of the Catholic Church in the eighteenth century Tullaghorton was joined with the neighbouring parishes of Tubrid, Whitechurch and part of Rochestown around 1750 to form the new parish of Ballylooby and Tubrid.[28]


West window at Tullaghorton church

Further reading = Canon Patrick Power, ‘Obligationes Pro Annatis Diocesis Waterfordiensis et Lismorensis’, in Archivium Hibernicum, vol. XII (1946), pp. 26, 40, 59-60

Canon Patrick Power, The place-names of Decies (Cork University Press, 1952), p. 335

Canon Patrick Power, Waterford and Lismore: a compendious history of the united diocese (Cork University Press, 1937), pp. 82, 85

Rev. W. Rennison, Succession list of the Bishop, Cathedral and Parochial Clergy of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore (1920), pp. 151-2

Various editors, Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland (London & Dublin, 1893-present), vol. 1, p. 371; ibid, vol. 10, p. 436; ibid, vol. 12, p. 637; ibid, vol. 13, p. 682



End of post



[1] Olden, M.G., The faith journey of the Déise People (Waterford, 2018), p. 174

[2] Hennessey, M., ‘Parochial organisation in medieval Tipperary’, in William Nolan & Thomas McGrath (eds.), Tipperary: History and Society, Interdisciplinary Essays on the History of an Irish County (Dublin, 1985), pp. 60-70, at p. 67

[3] Empey, C.E., ‘The Settlement of the Kingdom of Limerick’, in James Lydon (ed.), England and Ireland in the Later Middle Ages: Essays in honour of Jocelyn Otway-Ruthven (Blackrock, 1981), pp. 1-25, at p. 5

[4] Mac Niocaill, G. (ed.), The Red Book of the Earls of Kildare (Dublin, 1964), no. 7

[5] Sweetman, H.S. (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland (5 vols. London, 1875, reprint Liechtenstein, 1974), Vol. 1 (1171-1251), no. 1268

[6] Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 1 (1171-1251), no. 169

[7] Lewis, S., Topographical Directory of Ireland (2 vols. London, 1837), vol. 2, p. 651

[8] Bliss, W.H. (ed.), Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Papal Letters, Vol. 1, 1198-1304 (London, 1893), p. 371

[9] Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 5 (1302-1307), p. 306

[10] Power, Canon P., ‘Oblgationes pro Annatis Diocesis Lismorensis 1426-1529’, in Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. 12 (1946), pp. 15-61, at p. 26, note 1

[11] Archaeological Survey of Ireland, monument number TS087-026 [accessed on 26th July 2021]

[12] Archaeological Survey of Ireland, monument number TS087-026 [accessed on 26th July 2021]

[13] Rennison, Rev. W., Succession list of the Bishop, Cathedral and Parochial Clergy of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore (1920), p. 232

[14] Power, ‘Oblgationes pro Annatis Diocesis Lismorensis’, in Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. 12 (1946), pp. 15-61, at p. 60

[15] Twemlow, J.A. (ed.), Calendar of Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland: Papal Letters, Vol. 10, 1447-1455 (London, 1915), p. 436

[16] Power, ‘Oblgationes pro Annatis Diocesis Lismorensis’, in Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. 12 (1946), pp. 15-61, at pp. 59, 60

[17] Twemlow, J.A. (ed.), Calendar of Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland: Papal Letters, Vol. 12, 1458-1471 (London, 1933), p. 637

[18] Twemlow, J.A. (ed.), Calendar of Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland: Papal Letters, Vol. 13, 1471-1484 (London, 1955), p. 682

[19] Haren, M.J. (ed.), Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Papal Letters, Vol. XV, Innocent VIII: Lateran Registers 1484-1492 (Dublin, 1978), no. 399

[20] Twemlow (ed.), Calendar of Papal Registers Great Britain and Ireland: Vol. 13, 1471-1484, p. 682

[21] Power, ‘Oblgationes pro Annatis Diocesis Lismorensis’, in Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. 12 (1946), pp. 15-61, at p. 26

[22] Twemlow (ed.), Calendar of Papal Registers Great Britain and Ireland: Vol. 13, 1471-1484, p. 682

[23] Haren (ed.), Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. XV, Innocent VIII: Lateran Registers 1484-1492, no. 399

[24] Power, ‘Oblgationes pro Annatis Diocesis Lismorensis’, in Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. 12 (1946), pp. 15-61, at p. 40

[25] Rennison, Succession list of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, p. 152

[26] Rennison, Succession list of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, p. 60

[27] Rennison, Succession list of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, p. 152

[28] Olden, The faith journey of the Déise People, p. 171