Monday, December 6, 2021

Wexford Liberty: a medieval time line of events

 

Wexford Liberty: a medieval time line of events

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

This article gives a timeline of events, both great and small, that were associated directly and indirectly with the liberty of Wexford. The liberty, established in 1247, existed on and off until 1604-1608 when it ceased to exist as the shire county administration took over more responsibilities as the liberty officers died or retired. The timeline does not include every reference to events in those 361 years. Readers are directed to the various editions of the Deputy Keeper reports of the Dublin Public Record Office.[1] The justice rolls relating to Edward I and Edward II also contain various references to Wexford.[2] Other sources include Sweetman’s Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland. Religious sources are set out by Leslie in his Clergy of Ferns along with the various editions of the Calendar of Papal Registers published by the H.M.S.O. and the I.M.C and registers of a number of monasteries.[3]

The partition of Leinster, 1247

1247, 3rd May: the great lordship and liberty of Leinster was partition among the five daughters of William Marshal after the last of his five sons died without leaving any male heirs. The total value of Leinster was about £1,716 7s 8½d with each heir getting £343 5s 6½d.[4] In addition to the Irish property, the estates of William Marshal in England and Wales were also partitioned five ways with a temporary extra division made for Walter Marshal’s widow.

Matilda, or Maud, was the eldest daughter, and in 1247, the only surviving daughter. In 1207 she married Hugh Bigod, Earl of Norfolk and after his death in 1225 she married William, Earl Warenne, who died in 1240. Matilda died in 1248 and was succeeded as lord of Carlow by his son, Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk, and Marshal of England which he inherited from his mother. Roger died in 1270 and was succeeded by his nephew, Roger as 5th Earl who in 1302 surrendered his whole estate to the king. After his death in December 1306 Carlow and substantial estates across England passed to King Edward 1. In 1307 the lordship of Carlow was worth £343 0s 1½d.

Matilda Marshal received the liberty of Carlow with the burgess of Carlow, the assizes and perquisitis of the county along with the manors of Ballydunegan, Futhered, and Tamulyn, all in Carlow. The castle of Old Ross, the burgess of New Ross, and the Great Island on the Barrow below New Ross, all in Wexford. Matilda also got the manor of Ballysax in Kildare along with knights’ fees in Carlow and Wexford.[5]

Joan Marshal, the second daughter, received the liberty of Wexford. After 1219 she married Warin de Munchensi and had a son, John de Munchensi (Monte Caniso) who in 1247 represented his deceased mother. But John died shortly after the partition and was succeeded by his sister Joan, wife of William de Valence, King Henry III’s half-brother, and on 13th August 1247 they received seisin of the liberty of Wexford. The property consisted of the burgess of Wexford, the assizes and perquisitis of the county, along with the manors of Rosslare, Carrick, Ferns and Bannow with the vill of Taghmon. The estate also received the manor of Odagh in County Kilkenny along with knights’ fees across County Wexford. William de Valence was made Earl of Pembroke in 1264 and died in 1296. Joan de Valence died in 1307 and was succeeded by her third and only surviving son Aymer de Valence.[6]

The liberty provided all the functions of local government as the sheriff did in other counties while the four pleas: arson, rape, treasure trove and forestalling, were reserved to the king[7]

1247: Eleanor de Bohun of Dunamase received the manor of Carnew in north Wexford = Dunamase was itself part of the liberty of Kildare = Agatha Mortimer of the Liberty of Kildare received the manors of Clonmines and Taghmon in south Wexford[8]

1248: de Valence claimed to receive a royal grant to hold assizes and pleas in the vills of Ross, Clonmines and Carew which were owned by the other Marshal daughters[9]

1277: Agatha Mortimer, wife of Hugh Mortimer and one of the seven daughters of Sibyl Marshal, grantee of the Liberty of Kildare, claimed that William Marshal had granted a franchise or liberty to Clonmines which was separate from the liberty of Wexford[10] = Hugh Mortimer of Chelmarsh died June 1275 leaving son Henry (d.1317) leaving a son Hugh (d.1372) who left six sons and two daughters of which the eldest son was Henry de Mortimer (d.1361) leaving two sons William (d.s.p.1391) and Hugh (d.s.p. 1403)[11] = Agatha in June 1306 held Clonmines and Henry de Mortimer, her son, was heir[12]

 


Ferns Castle


Carlow/Wexford

1247: the Bigod lordship included the liberty of Carlow along with extensive knight’s fees in Carlow (23¼ fees and 1/20 fee) and Wexford (12¾ fees)[13] = the Wexford fees were located along the east coast, in mid county and scattered places across southern Wexford from New Ross to Carnsore Point[14]

1247: some tenants like Adam Keating held knight fees from the Bigod and Valence lordships, namely Slievecoiltia in Shelburne from the Bigod fee and Kilcogain from the Valence fee[15]

1288: the seneschals of Carlow, Wexford, Kilkenny and Kildare told to defend the marchlands along the River Barrow corridor[16]

1307: the liberty of Carlow pays £44 8s 10d and the liberty of Wexford pays £44 8s 10d as does the liberty of Kilkenny while the liberty of Kildare paid 100 marks[17]

1307: the Bigod share of Leinster included knight fees in Wexford and Carlow[18]

1313: Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke (lord of Wexford), Thomas, Earl of Norfolk (the king’s brother and lord of Carlow), and Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford (lord of Kilkenny) were granted pontage for twenty years to build and repair a bridge over the River Barrow between the towns of Ross and Rosbarcon[19]

1317: Aymer de Valence as Earl of Pembroke was one of the witnesses along with Thomas de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England, to the grant of confirmation by King Edward II of the creation of Thomas Fitzgerald as Earl of Kildare in 1316 and the subsequent grant to him of the liberty of Kildare and the sheriffdom which was reserved to the crown in the 1316 creation[20]

1341-3: John Moriz sent writs to various magnates in Carlow, Wexford and other counties[21]

1351: William de Bromeleye and John de Pembroke collected debts to the king in the Counties of Carlow, Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, Limerick, Waterford and Cork[22]

1355-6: John de Troye and William de Burton collected debts to the king inside and outside the liberties of Carlow and Wexford and in other counties[23]

1368, July: John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Wexford and Lord of Abergavenny, marries as his second wife Anne, daughter and heir of Walter de Mauny, Lord Mauny, by his wife Margaret, eldest daughter and heir of Thomas de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk and Lord of Carlow[24]

1369: William Spalding, clerk of the king’s works at Camlin, Co. Wexford and Tullow, Co. Carlow, should be paid £61 for wages and materials he had purchased for the works[25]

1375-6: John St. John of Tilladoman in the barony of Bargy, in Wexford, died leaving his son a minor. John held his lands from Sir Walter Mauny, deceased, second husband of Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, and eldest daughter of Thomas de Brotherton, lord of Carlow[26]

1482: William, Viscount Berkeley and lord of Carlow, was bound to John, late Earl of Shrewsbury, of sums amounting to £34,000 which the king exemplified by act of parliament[27]

 

Liberty of Wexford

1247, August 13th: Joan Marshal, heiress of Wexford married William de Valence, 4th son of Hugh X le Brun, Count of La Marche and jure uxoris of Angouleme, Lord Lusignan by Isabel, widow of King John and daughter and heir of Aymer, Count of Angouleme = William de Valence becomes lord of Wexford[28]

1265: the citizens of New Ross enclosed their town with a wall because of the war between the two barons of Sir Maurice and Sir Walter[29]

1282-4: Robert de Imer, seneschal of Wexford, holds inquisitions into the rents, services & customs of the Ostmen beyond the county of Wexford[30]

1285: Nicholas, archdeacon of Ferns, claims he was unlawfully impleaded at the exchequer by Sir William Waspayl concerning the goods of Adam St John[31]

1286: the abbot of Dunbrody in a court action that he entered falsely on five carucates of land at Crook belonging to the Knights Templar contrary to English law yet apparently allowed under Irish law[32]

1286-7: Gilbert de Sutton was seneschal of Wexford = he also served as sheriff of Kildare in 1297-8 and 1303-4[33]

1294: the seneschal of Wexford, in consultation with his council, arranged stock piles of provisions in Ferns castle in anticipation of a rising by the Mac Murchada nation[34]

1296: died William de Valence, Lord of Wexford = he had 3 sons and 4 daughters but only the third son, Aymer de Valence, survived his parents. The daughters were: Isabel, wife of John Hastings; Margaret (died 1276); Agnes married firstly Maurice Fitzgerald, 3rdLord Offaly (d.1268, leaving son Gerald as 4th Baron Offaly, succeeded by his cousin John, 5th Baron and 1st Earl of Kildare in 1316), and secondly Hugh de Bailiol (d.1271, elder brother of John de Bailiol, King of Scotland 1292-6) and thirdly John de Avesnes; and the fourth daughter Joan married John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch[35] = John Comyn was stabbed by Robert the Bruce February 1306 leaving a son John Comyn of Badenoch = John Comyn junior died 1314 at Bannockburn leaving two sisters, Joan and Elizabeth = Joan, the eldest, married David de Strathbogie, Earl of Athol[36] = Elizabeth, second and youngest daughter and co-heir of John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, married Richard Talbot, 2nd Lord Talbot, great-grandfather of John Talbot, Lord Furnivalle, Lord Talbot of Hallamshire, who in 1441 was created Earl of Shrewsbury[37]

1296: large parts of Wexford were described as lying in waste while 49 burgages in Ferns and 128 burgages in Wexford were in waste[38]

Pre1301: Richard de Peveneseie, seneschal of Wexford[39]

1301-2: Adam de la Roche, seneschal of Wexford[40]

1303, May at Tullow: the King has appointed Gilbert Sutton and Henry Estmund to provide and ensure that ships in the port of Wexford, and other ports along the coast there, are at Dalkey before Trinity next[41]

1304, October: The King wishes to know the reason for seizing the liberty of Joan Valence of Wexford by Simon Ludgate and his fellow justices of the bench and to restore the liberty to Joan[42]

1305: Gilbert de Sutton was seneschal of Wexford when he was killed fighting the Irish[43]

1306: the exchequer court of the liberty of Wexford was mentioned as having power of distain over a virgate of land and buildings in Rosponte (New Ross) that was granted by John le Parker and Margery his father to Edmund le Botiller[44] = New Ross would be considered part of the liberty of Carlow at that time

1307, pre September: died Joan, 5th daughter and co-heir of William Marshal. She was lord of Pembroke and Wexford

1307: Aymer de Valence, known as Lord Valence, succeeded his mother as Earl of Pembroke and styled himself lord of Wexford and Montague[45]

1308: the usual set up was six oxen to two horses in the plough-team in Wexford[46]

1310: some fees of the Bigod lordship in Wexford passed to the Valence lordship such as Kilcavan in the barony of Bargy[47] = but the evidence for other places is unclear = it is said that the Bigod overlordship of Glascarrig passed to the Valence fee and Amyer de Valence was landlord of 27 carucates there in 1321 but Glascarrig is not in the Valence feodary of 1324[48]

1313: Edmund le Botiller and Adam de la Roche of Daunhoume made a covenant that Adam would abide with Edmund and bear his arms against all his enemies except the king, Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Wexford, Sir Maurice de Rocheford, George de la Roche and Thomas de Dene in any part of Wexford[49]

1317: Aymer de Valence as Earl of Pembroke was one of the witnesses to the grant of confirmation by King Edward II of the creation of Thomas Fitzgerald as Earl of Kildare in 1316 and the subsequent grant to him of the liberty of Kildare and the sheriffdom which was reserved to the crown in the 1316 creation = Thomas de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England was another witness to the confirmation grant[50]

1317, July: Aymer de Valence grants a charter to the town of Wexford

1318, July: grant by Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Wexford and Montagu, a charter of liberties to the town of Wexford which was reconfirmed in 1413 and 1559[51]

Pre 1320: Aymer de Valence, lord of Wexford, married Beatrice, 3rd daughter and co-heir of Ralph de Clermont, Constable of France by his first wife Alice, Viscountess de Chateaudun and Dame de Montdoubleau. She died 14th September 1220 without issue[52]

1320s: in the days of King Edward II it was said that McMurrough Kavanagh controlled the land between Carlow and the East Sea (Irish Sea) with the O’Byrne and O’Toole families[53]

1321, July: Aymer de Valence married in Paris to Mary, daughter of Guy de Chastillon Count of St. Pol, by his wife Mary, daughter of John, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond by his wife Beatrice, daughter of King Henry III.[54]

1322-4: John St. John was constable of Wexford castle and sheriff of Wexford in 1322[55]

1324, June: Aymer de Valence died suddenly in France and was buried in Westminster Abbey

1324, 16th July: inquisition post mortem at Wexford into the property of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke[56]

1325, February: Aymer de Valence was succeeded by his sister and co-heir, Isabel, wife of John Lord Hastings (married 1275). Their second and surviving son was John de Hastings who married Julianne, daughter of Sir Thomas de Letbourne. Julianne later married Sir Thomas Blount and thirdly to William de Clinton, Earl of Huntingdon. John (died c.1325/6) and Julianne had a son Laurence de Hastings, born 1320, who became the new Earl of Pembroke[57] = custody of Laurence’s inheritance was granted to Hugh le Despenser, son of Hugh, Earl of Winchester[58]

1325, 1st March: dower granted to Aymer’s widow[59]

1326: Richard Talbot, son and heir of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Lord Talbot, married Elizabeth, second daughter and since 1316 co-heir of John Comyn of Badenoch = Richard Talbot died 1356 and his widow married John Bromwich[60]

1326, July: died Joan, daughter of John Comyn (d.1306) of Badenoch = December 1326 died her husband David de Strathbogie, Earl of Athol, leaving son David[61]

1328: Laurence de Hastings married Agnes, daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March

1330: David de Strathbogie, Earl of Athol, got full seisin of his estates[62]

1330: by that time the Earl of Ormond had acquired various messuages and lands in New Ross which he granted to Oliver de Fraxineto with reversion if Oliver has no heirs male[63]

1330, circa: John de Pissur was described as seneschal of the community of New Ross[64]

1334: Selskar priory seeks an inquisition on the land and advowson of Taghkyln that Robert de Sotewell proposes to grant them as lands destroyed by McMurrough & others[65]

1334-5: Robert Power appointed seneschal of Wexford[66] = Robert Poer was the king’s seneschal of Wexford to hold pleas and use his military force to keep the peace between the English and the Irish and assisted by Thomas de Dent and Richard Broun to hold pleas[67]

1335, November: died David de Strathbogie, Earl of Athol, husband of Catherine (d.1368) daughter of Henry Beaumont leaving son David (aged 3)

1335-6: Robert Poer, clerk, was appointed seneschal of Wexford by the king and was assisted by a small force of men at arms, hobelars and foot soldiers to keep the peace between the English and the Irish. William Motoun, clerk, was sent to the liberty of Wexford with the small seal of the liberty and proclaim the king’s assizes. Thomas de Dent held pleas in the liberty under the seneschal[68]

1336-7: Richard Broun, clerk, sent to Wexford to hold pleas under the seneschal[69]

1337: John de Ellerker asked for pardon of £84 a year farm on the lands of the late Laurence de Hastings in Co. Wexford of which he has two more years lease which property he holds of the king’s commission during the minority of the heir[70]

1337-8: Thomas de Dent sent to Wexford to hold pleas[71]

1338: Richard Talbot recovers his Wexford lands seized by the government as an absentee lord under the ordinance of 1331[72]

1338: the Earl Marshal of England held land at the tenement of Balyechan which bordered a carucate transferred from John Boscher of Balyechan to Walter King of New Ross, witnessed by the seneschal and sheriff of the Wexford liberty[73]

1339, February: although still a minor, Laurence de Hastings acquires seisin of his inheritance[74]

1339, October: the king recognises Laurence de Hastings as Earl of Pembroke and as earl palatine on the lands he inherited from Aymer de Valence = styled himself Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Wexford and Lord of Abergavenny[75]

1340, December: Laurence de Hastings made constable of Ferns[76]

1340-9: the Dublin government appointed constables to Ferns castle following the death of David of Strathbogie, 11th Earl of Athol[77]

1341: Laurence de Hastings of full age and granted full seisin of his inheritance[78]

1348: died Laurence Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Wexford and Lord of Abergavenny, at Abergavenny and buried here[79]

1349-50: Sir John Hakeluyt and Agnes his wife were paid £13 6s 8d per year as their share of the third part of the liberty of Wexford assigned as dower to Agnes[80]

1350-1: liberty of Wexford in the king’s hand due to the minority of the heir of the Earl of Pembroke[81]

1355, July: Appointment of William Charnels, bishop Ferns; the sheriff Wexford; and Brother Richard Northamptoun as keepers of the peace in county Wexford = other keepers of the peace appointed in 1346, September 1355, 1358, 1364, 1365, 1375 (3 different appointments), 1382, 1386, 1387 (twice), 1403 (twice), 1409, 1415, 1425, 1426 and 1431[82]

1355, September: Nicholas Broun was appointed sheriff of Co. Wexford following his election by the gentlemen of the county[83]

1355, October: appointment of John Bristowe to the office of the chief serjeanty of Co. Wexford[84]

1355: David de Strathbogie, Earl of Athol, got full seisin of his estates[85]

1356: died Richard Talbot

1356-8: The O’Byrnes attacked the settlers in County Wexford with mounted soldiers and foot soldiers[86]

1358/9: Irish ministers use revenues from the lands of the Earl of Athol to pay for the expenses of Ferns castle, property of the Earl[87]

1359: John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Wexford and Lord of Abergavenny, married Margaret (born 1347-died 1361), 4th daughter of King Edward III by Philippe of Hainault[88]

1364: John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, granted seisin of his entire father’s property in England and Wales[89]

Pre 1364-1385: in December 1386 Thomas Clifford, escheator of Ire., or his deputy in Co. Wexford was told to give Roscarlan manor to Simon Neville and Isabelle, his wife = in response to a writ of certiorari = previous to 1364 inquisition taken before Robert Euere, deputy escheator of Ire., said Thomas Lynet was seised of the manor and held it by knight service of Laurence Hastings, Earl of Pembroke; and he gave the manor to Philip Furlang of la Horeton on condition that he re-enfeoff the said Thomas within three days, with remainder to one John Lynet, his bastard son, with reversion to the right heirs of Thomas = but Philip didn’t re-enfeoffed Thomas Lynet nor, after Thomas's death, John the bastard, although Clement Roche, Thomas's attorney, often demanded that he do so = Ismania, Thomas's daughter and heir and wife of Simon Nyvell, entered the said manor, claiming it as inheritance after the death John, who died without heirs male = but Philip retained possession and died seised, leaving a minor, Fulk, as his son and heir. After Philip's death, the manor was taken into Edward III's hand by minority of John Hastings, son and heir of Laurence; and it remained in the K.'s hand until Simon and Isabelle recovered their seisin by writ of novel disseisin against Fulk, Henry and others before the Justiciar in 1364 = It was also found that Isabelle was confirmed by the bishop in the name of Ismania but baptized in the name of Isabelle, and is known by either name; and that the said manor was worth 100s = On 10 December 1385 Simon and Isabella appeared in chancery by their attorney and sought restoration = a fine was payable = the King pardoned them the fine on their ignorance and poverty = order to deliver the manor to them together[90]

1366: the bishop of Ferns asked the king about his rights concerning weights and measures within the diocese of Ferns[91]

1368, January: Gerald, earl of Desmond and justiciar of Ireland, was at Wexford to hear the pleas of juries and assizes relating to a dispute between two parties concerning a free tenement in Clonmeen[92]

1368, July: John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Wexford and Lord of Abergavenny, marries as his second wife Anne, daughter and heir of Walter de Mauny, Lord Mauny, by his wife Margaret, eldest daughter and heir of Thomas de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk and Lord of Carlow[93]

1368, September: John Hastings comes of age and received full seisin of his English lands and in October received full seisin of his lands in Ireland and Wales[94]

1368: died Katherine, dowager Countess of Athol, daughter of Henry de Beaumont, Earl of Buchan by Alice, eldest daughter and co-heir of John Comyn, Earl of Buchan[95]

1369: the town of Bannow (Wexford) and other land and tenements in Jerpoint and Everdrym in Co. Wexford (sic Kilkenny), belonging to Sir John Bromwich, were seized by reason of a certain ordinance made by the King but later restored[96]

1369, October: died David de Strathbogie, Earl of Athol, leaving no issue by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Henry de Ferrers, 2nd Lord Ferrers of Groby, by Isabel, daughter and co-heir of Theobald Verdun, 2nd Lord Verdun[97] = he left two daughters as co-heirs; (first) Elizabeth who married firstly Sir Thomas Percy (son of 1st Earl Northumberland) [her son Sir Henry Percy of Athol died 1432 leaving two daughters; Elizabeth wife of Thomas Burgh and William Lucy; Margaret wife of Henry 6th Lord Grey of Condor and Richard de Veer] and secondly (1390) to John le Scrope (d.1405, 5th son of Henry le Scrope of Masham)[Scrope left two daughters; Elizabeth Clarell and another] = (second) Philippa married firstly Sir Ralph Percy (d.1397 no issue) and married secondly to Sir John Halsham who had three sons of whom Richard was eventual heir leaving Joan, his daughter as his heir and wife of John Lewkenor (d.1471) = in 1495 Sir Henry Roos, grandson of John Halsham was heir[98]

1371-2: Henry Wogan acted as constable of Enniscorthy castle on behalf of the king during the minority of the heir of John de Rocheford[99]

1372, November: born John Hastings, son of John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke and Lord of Wexford and Anne de Mauny[100]

1372, November: died Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of John Comyn of Badenoch, husband of Joan de Valence[101]

1374: the Irish treasury issued a summons to John Bromwich for unpaid receipts of his land while in the king’s hand in 1369 but the king caused him to be quit of any payments[102]

1374: writs sent to the sovereigns and councils of New Ross and Wexford to elect representatives for the forthcoming Irish parliament[103] 



Leinster House, Parliament House


1374: Stephen Furlang given custody of the castle of Keyr, near Bree, Co. Wexford, as in the K.'s hand because of the minority of Fulk Furlang, son and heir of Ismania Denne, to have during pleasure, paying 100s annually, provided Stephen finds sufficient ward and provisions[104]

1374: Walter Coterell spent 14 days in Co. Wexford inquiring about treasure trove and four weeks in Wexford and Waterford examining shipping according to regulations without pay = granted ten marks[105]

1374, August: John Hastings, Earl Pembroke and lord of Wexford appoints John Roche to act before the bishop of Meath in all pleas concerning Pembrokeshire[106]

1375 appears to have been a busy year in the life of the Wexford liberty but that is more because the survival rate of documents record more items for this year compared to other years

1375: died John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke and Lord of Wexford in Picardy = body returned to England and buried in the Grey Preachers, Hereford[107]

1375, April: appointed of Stephen, bishop of Meath, of the custody of the Wexford lands of the late John Hastings and ensure the appointment of seneschals and other officers[108]

1375: the effective area of the County of Wexford was defined as covering the four southern cantreds (baronies) of Forth, Bargy, Shelburne, and Shelmalier and the cantred of Keyr[109] = Keyr covered the area in 1375 that was later defined as the eastern part of Shemalier[110]

1375: the vicecomiti (sheriff) and officials (provosts, sergeants, sub-sergeants & bailiffs) of Wexford were directed to appoint lay assessors and collectors of a subsidy which covered the province of Munster and Counties of Kilkenny and Wexford[111]

1375: Walter Pierce of Wexford got a licence to buy 2 quarters of wheat and 6 of oats in any port in Ireland, and to transport them to Wexford at his own expense[112]

1375, June: Nicholas, son of John Synnath, was appointed chief serjeant of Co. Wexford[113]

1375, July: the commons and clergy of Wexford were asked to pay 40 marks as part of 400 marks allocated by the Irish parliament to fund the defence of the king’s loyal subjects in Munster against O’Brien of Thomond and the O’Connor of Connacht[114]

1375, July: to liberty and county officials of Tipperary, Kilkenny, Wexford and Waterford and numerous town officials including those of New Ross and Wexford are instructed to obey the officials of Waterford city in the collection of any fees relating to the export of the staple from Waterford as instructed to do so by statute[115] 

1375, July: pardon in parliament to Philip Neville who once parleyed with the Irish of Kensely and attacked loyal subjects, now has turned on the Irish and many marchy areas are now free of Irish enemies on the recommendation of the Wexford keepers of the peace[116] 

1375, October: Thomas Dene, bishop of Ferns, complained that his property and tenants at Ferns and elsewhere were seized by unnamed persons without payments = the king takes the bishop’s property and tenants under his special protection[117]

1375/6, January: wardship of the estates of the late Earl of Pembroke granted to his widow, Anne de Mauny and her mother, the Countess of Norfolk[118]

1376: John Botelson asks to be constable of Wexford castle and chief serjeant of the county for life in reward for his 18 years of royal service = property held by king during minority of heir of John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke[119]

1376, February (new style): Roger Hassam of Wexford was allowed to transport three weys of wheat to Wexford[120]

1376, February: James Butler, Earl of Ormond, Thomas Mareward and Hugh Cromp were appointed to inquire in Cos. Dublin, Meath, Louth, Cork, Limerick, Kilkenny, Waterford and Wexford concerning wine merchants who claimed payment of prisages in the ports of Cornwall and quittances on this when they land in the ports of Ireland with their wines. They are to arrest those who are found guilty and to keep them until ordered otherwise[121]

1376, February: John Peres and Robert Stokes were appointed to ensure that no royal soldiers left Ireland by Wexford port or any ports in the county = the liberty seneschal, sheriff of the crosslands and the sovereign of Wexford were to give all and any assistance[122]

1376, February: the abbot of Tintern claimed pardon at parliament for paying 13 marks to the prior of Canterbury for churches in Wexford against the ordnance concerning benefices and possessions in Ireland held by those in England because of ignorance of the ordnance = pardoned granted[123]

1376, March: Nicholas Dagworth came to the Kilkenny parliament of October 1375 to say the king of England can no longer bear the full cost of the Irish army and the magnates, commons and clergy of Ireland must share the burden = but the Irish claimed poverty and inability to pay = therefore each county, parliamentary borough and diocese were asked to send representatives to meet the king in England = the diocese of Ferns elected the dean of Ferns and Richard Whitty, clerk and the county of Wexford, through the sheriff accept the same two to represent the liberty while New Ross sent William Seymour and William Rykille while Wexford town sent Laurence Bron and James Freynish[124]

1377: died Mary, Countess of Pembroke (widow of Aymer de Valence) = inquisition post mortem at Wexford 9 Richard II Saturday after All Saints finds she held in dower from her husband Aymer de Valence and held of the king by scutage = Rosslare manor, Carrick manor + advowson of St Nicholas chapel, Ballymascaller 60s years rent from burgesses, Wexford 40s yearly by burgesses for third part of town, Athert 80 acres in the town, Ferns a third part of manor and castle worth nothing as devastated by the Irish = reversion of Rosslare, Athert, Wexford and Ballymascallur to John de Hastings (aged 14) = reversion of Carrick and Ferns to Gilbert Talbot, Lord Goodrich (aged 40) = premises seized by Edward III during minority and granted to William de York, rent free who subsequently sold the grant to John More of Dublin and others[125]

1377, June: Stephen, bishop of Meath, was given custody of the Earl of Pembroke’s estate at a certain value before the escheator, enemies of the bishop claimed the property was not fully valued and Richard Walsh and John Brettan did a re-evaluation = bishop claim expenses for the inconvenience and gifted £6[126]

1377, July: the sovereign of Wexford, Thomas Doune, and others inform the public that they are bound to pay the expenses of James Butler, earl of Ormond and justiciar of Ireland, while he was in Wexford town and around County Wexford to the value of £11[127]

1377-1378: Thomas Everdon, chief engrosser of the Ex. of Ire., was appointed to levy and hasten debts, extend the K.'s farms and do other things in Cos. Kilkenny and Wexford and also in Munster, and he laboured at his own expense; and on another occasion appointed by a similar commission = laboured for a quarter year = levied £111 without fee or reward. = January 1385 seeks reward = the King gifted him 8 marks[128]

1378: Walter Coterell appointed king’s pleader in Munster, Kilkenny and Wexford = annual fee of 100s with subsequent notices of arrears[129]

1378: Robert de la Freigne, Walter Coterell and John Lumbard were appointed as justices to inquire by juries of Cos. Kilkenny, Wexford, Waterford, Cork, Limerick, Kerry and Tipperary concerning all manner of seditions, felonies, trespasses, extortions, etc[130]

1378: parliamentary writ to the sovereigns of New Ross and Wexford and other parliamentary boroughs[131]

1378: by advice of the Justiciar, the Irish Council agreed that Art Dermicius McMurgh of Kensely, chieftain of his lineage, be retained in the king’s army for one year, in return for 40 marks[132]

1378: Thomas Dene, bishop of Ferns, was farmer of the estates of Mary St Paul, late countess of Pembroke in dower. With the death of the countess all the Pembroke estate returned to the king on the minority of the heir and in June 1377 custody was granted to William York until the heir reaches majority = bishop paid York £7 10s of the issues receipts[133]

1378, March: grant to John Piers and John Boudram of custody of all lands cultivated within the park of Wexford, with moors and pasture within the bounds of that park, to hold during pleasure rendering 10s p.a. from the hands of the provost of Wexford[134]

1378, March: 100 marks levied on Counties Dublin, Kilkenny, Wexford and Kildare to pay Murrough O’Brien to leave Leinster with his army = the counties were slow to levy the fine and so the Dublin treasury set the fine upon the counties and named individuals[135]

1378, March: writs to proclaim the royal service at Cashel, addressed to the sheriffs of Cos. Louth, Kildare, Carlow, Waterford, Wexford (not an independent liberty in 1378), Cork and Limerick; and to the seneschals of the liberties and the sheriffs of the crosslands of Meath, Kilkenny, Tipperary and Kerry = but few if any came = order to compel people to pay[136]

1378, March: commons of Wexford fined £10 for elected Richard Whitty to parliament while he was an outlaw and so disabled from attending[137]

1378, April: Patrick de la Freigne went to Wexford and Kilkeny with the Earl of Ormond and the bishop of Ossory to bring Art McMurrough and his chiefs to peace = gifted £10 for his expenses = at same time = McMurrough, O’Byrne and O’Toole, captains of their nations joined McMurrough in rebellion against the Leinster settlers[138]

1378, May: Thomas Everdon and John Lumbard were appointed to levy the King's debts in Cos. Kilkenny, Wexford, and Munster[139]

1379: Hugh Rochefort, seneschal and receiver of the king’s demesnes in Wexford from 1377 was granted £4 by Edward III but didn’t receive before king’s death = order to pay and another £4[140]

1379: John Lumbard was appointed on 12th March 1379 as justice in Cos. Kilkenny, Waterford, Wexford, Cork, Limerick and Tipperary to inquire, hear and determine. He laboured for a quarter year and more with six men and horse at great expense, collected 200 marks for the treasury = August 1382 seeks reward = the King gifted him 20 marks[141]

1380, February: John York remised forever to Robert Evere and John More all his rights in the Co. Wexford property that belonged to Mary St Paul, late countess of Pembroke[142]

1380, June: John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, Lord Hastings and Lord Mauny, married Elizabeth, daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster by his first wife Blanche, daughter and heir of Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster = marriage dissolved September 1383[143]

1380, July: King Edward III appointed John Botelstoun constable of Wexford castle and chief serjeant of co. Wexford, grant him 5 marks for his time in the office of constable = May 1382 order to the provosts of Wexford town to pay John Botelston £10 p.a. as constable of Wexford castle and chief serjeant of Co. Wexford[144]

1380, September: writ to sheriff of County Wexford to send representatives to parliament (not a liberty?) = and New Ross and Wexford town[145]

1380-1536: various acts of absentees the crown took title to the Irish lands of the Dukes of Norfolk, Lord Berkeley and the Earl of Shrewsbury including the liberty of Wexford and titles of Norfolk and Berkeley to property in north Wexford[146]

1381, February: Earl of Ormond, Robert de la Freigne, Walter Cotterell and Michael Lawless appointed as justices to inquire by oath of worthy men of Co. Wexford concerning the people who took goods belonging to John Arundell[147]

1381, August: David Schepman and Clement Butler in the towns of Wexford and New Ross; and Richard Whittey, Patrick Broun and Thomas Wadding in Co. Wexford were elected as assessors in the towns of Wexford and New Ross, and county of Wexford, for finding 20 archers in defence of that county[148]

1381, 3rd October: Gerald de Rocheford quitclaim his rights in certain properties in Counties Limerick, Cork and Wexford including the manor of Enniscorthy in Wexford[149]

John Hastings married secondly to Philippe (born 1375), 2nd daughter of Edmund de Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March by Philippe, daughter and heir of Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence[150]

1382: writ to sheriff of Wexford and sovereign and provost of Wexford and New Ross as well as other towns and counties that no one should proceed to foreign parts without licence[151]

1382, July: Thomas Bathe, the K.'s clerk, and John Lumbard had letters to levy the king’s debts in Cos. Waterford, Wexford and elsewhere obtaining £100 and suffered great expense in Leinster and Munster. He seeks remedy. The K. has granted Thomas 100s of his gift[152]

1382, July: John Brettan, remembrancer of the Ex., was commissioned to levy the King’s debts and other profits in Cos. Kilkenny, Wexford, Waterford, Cork, Kerry, Limerick and Tipperary, both inside and outside liberties, from 30 Sept. [1381] to 1 April [1382] at great expense. He petitioned the late Lieutenant, justiciar and council and granted 40d a day for that time but petitions got lost = seeks a reward as other clerks received = King granted him 40 marks his gift[153]

1382: the bishop of Ferns had leased to John Esmond 1 messuage and 3 acres of land in Kyllallok, Co. Wexford, by fealty and service of 100s p.a., = but John was outlawed for writ of debt by suit of Thomas Maureward and the escheator seized the property = order to pay the bishop 3s 4d beyond the said rent due to him[154]

1382, November: bishop of Ossory appointed to inquire concerning goods forfeited to the crown in Cos. Kilkenny, Tipperary, Waterford and Wexford, along with escheats, wards, marriages and reliefs, and return same into profit for the crown[155]

1383, February (new style): licence by fine of 40s for Richard Whithay to enfeoff Nicholas Balland, chaplain, of the manor of Ballacarghan (Ballataghan) held of the King in chief, and for Nicholas to re-enfeoff the said Richard and Eva his wife, to hold forever, remainders to Richard son of Richard Whithay and John son of Richard Whithay and the right heirs of the said Richard Whitay forever[156]

1383, November: John Lumbard and Robert Sutton were appointed as justices to hear and determine certain seditions, felonies, trespasses and other matters in Co. Wexford = they held a session at Taghmon in the marches of that county for five whole weeks at their own expense with 16 men and horse in their company to resist the Irish there = they collected 40marks = seek reward = the King gifted 100s to John and 60s to Robert = outstanding November 1384[157]

1384, November: By advice of the Lt of Ire. and the K.'s council there, and for £160 paid in the hanaper, grant to Sir Ralph Cheyne of custody of all lands and tenements in Co. Wexford that belonged to John Hastings, late Earl of Pembroke, held in chief of the king and held by the king by minority of John, his son and heir, to have until the heir comes of age[158]

1384, December: appointment of Patrick de la Freigne and Robert de la Freigne, Walter Coterell and John Lumbard as justices concerning seditions in Cos. Kilkenny, Wexford, Waterford, Tipperary and Limerick[159]

1385, June: the Countess of Norfolk granted custody of her grandson, John Hastings, for five years

1385, July: Walter Penkeston, clerk, got grave injuries & lost a horse worth £10 in Idrone where the lieges of Co. Wexford had gone in expedition against McMurrough = granted 40s[160]

1385, October: appointment of Edmund del Clay, chief justice common bench, William Langham & Robert Mauleverer as justices of seditions etc. in Cos. Kildare, Carlow, Kilkenny, Wexford, Waterford, Tipperary, Cork & Limerick[161]

1385, October: custody given to Simon Nevell of the manor and rents of Roscarloun, of which Philip Furlang died seised by the mainprize of Matthew fitz Henry and William Boscher of Co. Wexford[162]

1385, October: Edmund del Clay & Richard Gyffard, appointed as justices itinerant to hear & determine all pleas in Cos. Kildare, Carlow & Wexford[163]

1386, August: ratification of the estate of John Hogan chaplain, keeper of the leper-house of St Mary Magdalene near Wexford, with the rectory of Molrancan annexed, diocese of Ferns, has in the custody of the said house and church[164]

1386, October: licence to William Sygyn, Thomas Mernagh and John Wayt to buy six weys of wheat, winter barley and oats in Co. Wexford, load them in ships and transport them to the city of Cork by the mainprise of Robert le Hore and Thomas Admot as the citizens of Cork are surrounded by sterile countryside = December 1386 licence to Gregory Hore to buy eight weys of wheat and oats, and convey them to Cork or Kinsale, by mainprize of Hugh Rochefort of Co. Wexford = March 1386/7 licence to Hugh Rochefort to buy 3 weys of wheat and 3 weys of oats in any port in Co. Wexford, and to transport by sea to Cork and Kinsale and the neighbouring parts[165]

1386/7, February: Countess of Norfolk made indenture with William de Beauchamp, keeper of the estates in Pembroke and elsewhere in Wales (made keeper in March 1377/8), to grant the whole estate to John Hastings[166]

1387, January: custody granted to David Wogan (by mainprize of Thomas Whitey of Co. Wexford and Richard Bossher of Co. Kildare) of the lands of Richard Whitey in Co. Wexford, held of the inheritance of John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, deceased, held by Richard's death on minority of Patrick, his son and heir; to have during pleasure = April 1387 custody granted to Hugh Rochefort of the land of Richard son of Richard Whitey until heir is of age = David Wogan to interfere no further[167]

1387, May: custody given to James Freynshe of 40 acres of land in Balyell, Co. Wexford, which belonged to William Cadde, deceased = who held in chief of the heir of the earl of Pembroke deceased, a minor in the King's custody = in hands of the marquis by William's death and the minority of his heir; to have during pleasure[168]

1387, June: licence for Henry Lane and John White, citizens of Waterford, to load eight tuns of salmon in a ship in any port in Wexford or Waterford, and transport them to England[169]

1388: died John Bromwich (1380 justiciar), second husband of Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of John Comyn by his wife Joan, sister of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Wexford[170]

1388: John le Scrope (son of Henry, 1st baron Scrope of Masham) married Elizabeth, eldest daughter and co-heir of David, Earl of Athol

1398, May: Martin Godde, ex-sheriff of Co. Wexford to deliver to Simon Nevyll all writs as the new sheriff[171]

1389, June: appointment of Thomas Swetman and Matthew fitz Henry as justices to inquire about seditions and lands due to the king in Cos. Wexford and Waterford[172]

1389, December, 30th or 31st: at Christmas time when King Richard II held court at Woodstock (later site of Blenheim Palace) John Hastings was killed by a lance while trying out his horse in practice for a tournament[173] = buried first beside his father in the Friars Preachers at Hereford and then exhumed March 1392 and buried in Grey Friars, London = at death the Earldom of Pembroke reverted to the crown and the Barony of Mauny became extinct while the Barony of Hastings went dormant[174]

1389: Philippe Hastings, widow of John, subsequently married secondly Richard Fitzalan, 15th Earl of Arundel, as his second wife. In September 1397 Richard was beheaded. Philippe Hastings then married Thomas de Poynings, Lord St. John of Basing (died 1428) and she dies September 1401 at Halnaker and buried at Boxgrove[175]

1390: Reginald, Lord Grey de Ruthyn, claimed the lordship of Wexford as the son Reginald (d.1388), son of Roger, Lord Grey de Ruthyn by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of John Hastings (d.1312) and Isabel de Valence, eldest daughter of William de Valence[176]

1390, March: custody granted to Hugh Rochefort (by mainprize of Stephen Kent and Thomas Estmond) of all the lands and rents that belonged to John, son and heir of John Hastings, late Earl of Pembroke, in Co. Wexford; to have for as long as they are in the K.'s hand, rendering 100s p.a.[177]

1390, April: appointment of William Benet of New Ross and Dionisius Roche of Wexford search anyone buying merchandise outside the common fair of New Ross and the neighbouring towns[178]

1390, May: John and Elizabeth le Scrope were given letters patent to appoint attorneys to manage their Irish estates with renewal in 1392 and the Earl of Ormond as attorney

1391, July: custody granted to Thomas, bishop of Ferns, and Joan wife of Nicholas Deverous (by mainprize of John Aynessarghe, clerk, and William Colyn of Co. Wexford) of the lands of Nicholas in Co. Wexford, in the King’s hand for certain reasons; to have for as long as they remain in the K.'s hand, rendering the extent[179]

1393, May: custody granted to Roger Codd of the town of New Ross with the mills meadows, fisheries and ferries there, and also the town of Dubarriesilaund (Great Island), Co. Wexford, with the courts, hundreds and all other appurtenances; and also the town of Kylcrone and all the lands, tenements, rents, services, knights' fees, advowsons of churches, wards, marriages and escheats, with appurtenances, that belonged to Philip Furlang in Co. Kilkenny, except the town of Molyngbro, which are in the King's hand for certain reasons; to have for as long as they remain in the King's hand, rendering twice a year[180]

1394: writ concerning postponement of parliament sent to seneschal of Wexford[181]

1395, February: Richard II granted to prior & convent of Selskar, near Wexford, licence to acquire lands, tenements, rents & advowsons of parochial churches, vicarages, chapels & chantries, to the value of £10 p.a. = acquired property in 1425 & 1427 below[182]

1395, March: six named monks of Dunbrody along with John Battaille of the barony of Dunbrody, John Wolff and Philip […], attacked David Estmond, burgess of Wexford, commissioner of the King at Dunbrody, while he was performing his office; and they imprisoned him, and destroyed the King's letters patent in his custody. However, on account of reverence to Holy Church, and so that the said monks may serve God with more devotion in this time of Lent, seneschal of Wexford told to supersede execution of that writ until the morrow of the Close of Easter 1395[183]

1395: Art McMurrough Kavanagh submits to King Richard II giving the crown ultimate title to Kavanagh lands[184]

1394-5: Poyning’s Parliament passes act of resumption which in 1611 give King James clear title to redistribute the lands of north Wexford[185]

1395, 28th April: grant by King Richard II of a large part of north Wexford to Sir John de Beaumont including the seven manors of Farringmall, O’Felmigh, Shermall, Lymalagoughe, Shelela, Gory and Dipps[186]

1395, April: ratification that Richard Talbot; John le Scrope and Elizabeth his wife; and John Halsham and Philippa his wife have the estate as heirs of John, son and heir of John Hastings, late Earl of Pembroke, in co. Wexford and the lands that Mary de St Pol held in dower and that Anne, wife of John Hastings, held in dower and also in other all manner of possessions whatsoever belonging to the earl, who held of the King in chief[187]

1395, 8th May: appointment by Richard Talbot, John and Elizabeth le Scrope and John and Philippa Halsham, lords of Wexford, of Thomas Moigne as seneschal of Wexford (Memoranda roll, 18-19 Richard II m. 37)[188]

1398, July: the escheator of Co. Wexford was told to given full seisin to Reginald Gray, lord of Ruthin, cousin and next heir of John son of John Hastings, late Earl of Pembroke and lord of the liberty of Wexford, after giving surety to the king[189]

1400, January: custody granted to Thomas Harbrek, constable of Carlow castle, (by mainprize of Richard Sydegreve and Robert Whityngham, both of Meath) of all manors, lands and services in Cos. Carlow, Kildare and Wexford that belonged to Margaret, late Duchess of Norfolk, in the King's hand by the death of Margaret and by the death of Thomas Mowbray, late duke of Norfolk, kinsman and heir of the said duchess, and by reason of the minority of his heir; to have during pleasure[190]

1400, March: appointment of the Earl of Ormond, John Cophull and John Lumbard to inquire by oath in Cos. Wexford, Waterford, Cork, Tipperary, Kilkenny and Limerick concerning the jewels, goods and chattels that belonged to John Exeter in those counties[191]

1400, May: appointment of Fulk Furlang as sheriff of Wexford[192]

1400, May: appointment of Matthew Furlang to the office of the chief serjeanty of Co. Wexford during pleasure, paying 6s 8d p.a. by mainprize of John son of James Frenshe and Henry Nyvell of co. Wexford[193]

1400, May: grant to John Roche of custody of the park of Wexford, during pleasure, rendering the extent, by mainprize of Roger Gryt clk and Roger Sampford of Co. Wexford[194]

1400, May: Commission to Sir Edward Perers (by mainprize of Thomas Herbryk and Thomas Taillour of Co. Carlow), of custody of all manors, lands and services in Cos. Carlow, Kildare and Wexford that belonged to Margaret, late Duchess of Norfolk, and that came into the King's hand on the death of the duchess, and are now in the king’s hand by the death of Thomas Mowbray, late Duke of Norfolk, kinsman and heir of the duchess, by reason of the minority of the heir of the late duke; to have during pleasure, rendering the extent[195]

1400, June: appointment of Nicholas Orell and James Cornewalsh to search for goods and chattels forfeited to the King that were in a certain ship of Kinsale, that was hidden in the chapel of St Macethe of the Island (Kilmokea) and to have all the goods [etc.] with all possible haste at New Ross before Sir John Stanley, Lieutenant of Ireland[196]

1400, June: Richard Broun, burgess of the town of New Ross, received from Edward Perers, attorney and seneschal of Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham, one old site of a mill called Lorcanesmyll (later called Larkin’s Mill), together with the watercourse of that mill and also half a carucate of land near the same mill in the lordship of Oldrosse, to have to him and his heirs forever, rendering to Thomas and his heirs 10s p.a. For this reason, Richard built a mill on the said site and began a tower for its safety and the defence of the town of New Ross, but that mill was burned by enemies. The mill and land are in the King's custody by reason of the minority of Thomas, son and heir of the said earl = to have custody for six years, without rendering anything[197] = is New Ross still part of the liberty of Carlow or now in Wexford?

1400, July: commission to John son of William Barry, by mainprize of Robert Burnell of  Dublin city and Thomas Taillour of Co. Kilkenny, of custody both of two thirds of the manor of Carrick, co. Wexford, in the K.'s hand by reason of the minority of the son and heir of Richard Talbot, deceased, and also of two thirds of the third part of the same manor which Ankarista, previously Richard's wife, an absentee, holds in dower, and of the chapel called Insula Barry, in the K.'s hand by reason of the outlawry of John, abbot of the house of the Blessed Mary of Ferns, and 17½ acres of land in Ballyell in the same county; [to have] for as long as they are in the K.'s hand, rendering the extent[198]

1400/1401 to 1415: in 1400-1 Raymond Bossher was sub-constable of Wexford town when he was amerced in 200s for the escape of Tatheus Haket, the fugitive. In February 1514 the King pardoned the amercement = Raymond was also fine 100s for the same offence and this was pardoned = Raymond was constable of Wexford castle and was also described as sub-constable of Wexford castle when the escape occurred[199]

1401: Patrick Barrett, bishop of Ferns, asks for the temporalities be given to him[200]

1402, June: grant by Patrick, bishop of Ferns, of the advowson of the church of Ardcolme, diocese of Ferns, to the prior and convent of the monastery of SS Peter and Paul of Selsker, near Wexford, forever[201]

1402: MacMurrough attacks Wexford defeating Sir Stephen le Scrope, the lord deputy of Ireland[202]

1403, December: pardon to Hugh Rochefort of Co. Wexford, on a fine of 20 marks, of suit of peace for all manner of trespasses and to him of the goods and chattels that belonged to John Holland, late Duke of Exeter, and other good and chattels forfeited, and also of outlawry[203]

1403, December: order to the seneschal of the liberty of Wexford to place Philip Rokeley, chaplain, in possession of the free chapel of St Saviour of New Ross[204]

1403, February: grant to Henry Strangwys, clerk, of two thirds of an annual pension of 10 marks of which the prior and convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, in Eng., were seised forever, issuing from the house of Tintern in Co. Wexford; to have for his life without rendering anything while in the king’s hand by the statute against absentees[205]

1403, May: licence to Patrick, bishop of Ferns, to treat with all persons, both English and Irish, enemies and rebels, in the marches of Cos. Wexford, Kilkenny and Carlow in order to restore them to the King's peace[206]

1404, January: an unnamed person had licence to transport one wey of wheat to Wexford[207]

1404, May: inspeximus of letters patent of Reginald Grey, lord of Wexford and of Ruthyn, appointing John Barry as deputy in the absence of John Roc, seneschal of the liberty of Wexford[208]

1404, May: licence to Robert Fynglas of Swords to transport half a wey of wheat to parts of Wexford[209]

1405, May: exoneration of Reginald Lord Grey from the payment of two thirds of the lordship of Wexford, assessed at 200m, on account of his absence in Eng. contrary to the statute of the late king, Richard II[210]

1406, December: John Barry, king’s attorney (one time deputy seancha√≠ of Wexford) was commissioned to inquire about the goods, tithes and value of John Midilton, Gilbert Alneth, chaplains, along with William Beket, clerk and Nicholas Sullivan alias Vale who were outlawed and their goods forfeited to the King and if they were absent contrary to statute[211]

1407, May: pardon to Nicholas, son of Nicholas Devereux, of all intrusions and contempts in the manor of Balmagyn, Co. Wexford, made by him or his ancestors or tenants; and of all debts due by forfeiture of Richard, formerly Earl of Arundel[212]

1407, June: appointment of Laurence Merbury, John Lumbard and William fitz Gerot as justices in Cos. Kilkenny, Wexford and Tipperary, and the crosslands of the same, to inquire concerning treasons[213]

1408, November: appointment of John [surname unknown] to the office of keeper and water-bailiff between the towns of New Ross and Wexford, for life[214]

1408, March: appointment of Robert Sutton, Nicholas Deveros, Nicholas Broun, Fulk Furlang, Dionisius Hay and Nicholas Hay to inquire concerning all treasons in Co. Wexford[215]

1409, January: grant to John, son of William Rochefort, of the custody of the house of the leper hospital of St Mary Magdalene near Wexford, for life[216]

1409, May: Licence Patrick, bishop of Ferns, to build a crenellated stone castle in the marshes of Wexford in a place called Mountgarret and hire suitable stone-cutters and masons within Cos. Kilkenny, Wexford and Waterford, to work upon the said construction at that bishop's expense[217]

1409, July: appointment of the seneschal of the liberty of Wexford, the sovereign of the towns of New Ross and Wexford, Robert Sutton, Nicholas Broun, Thomas Syot and Fulk Furlang to inquire as to how much of the sum of 80 marks is in arrears to Arthurus McMurrough arising by a dispute between Art and the commons of Wexford[218]

1410, January: grant to Walter Moryn of Wexford that he and his issue may use English law on the recommendation of Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ireland[219]

1410, May: appointment of John Lumbard & William fitz Geraud—who were previously appointed as justices of assize in Waterford, Wexford, Tipperary, Limerick & Cork—to deliver all writs to the sheriffs [etc.] in the absence of the Council, saving to the King fines & the fees of the Great Seal; the writs be same force as sealed with the Great Seal of Ire[220]

1410, November: A former escheator took a garden belonging to Henry Coulvercok in Wexford that an inquisition said that when Henry was provost of Wexford, when in the King's hand, he acquired that garden from Robert Martell within his bailiwick, contrary to statute. Because that reason is considered in chancery to be invalid, escheator to remove the King's hand[221]

1411, September: commission to Reginald Broun of the chief serjeanty of the crosslands of Co. Wexford[222]

1411, October: appointment of Nicholas White, Michael Orayllys, William fitz Gerald, John Keppagh, Robert Sutton & Patrick Cotterel—previously appointed to inquire, hear & determine in Cos. Kilkenny, Wexford, Waterford, Tipperary, Limerick, Cork & Kerry—to hear & determine appeals concerning death & also other felonies & abductions of women[223]

1411, November at New Ross: inspeximus and exemplification of various charters between c.1300 and 1411 concerning the family of de Ebroyc or Deveroys, in the property of Dounecormok, Tyberculle and Ballymckarwyll and the Lynet family[224]

1411, November: pardon to Henry fitz John Hore of intrusions in the manor of Kylmannok, Co. Wexford for good service[225]

1411, April: inspeximus and confirmation to the sovereign, bailiffs and burgesses of Wexford of a charter, dated 25 July 1317 of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke = second inspeximus in 1313[226]

1412, January: The commons of Wexford and the sovereign and commons of New Ross and Wexford granted Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire., 300m for his service within that county; with the following as assessors and collectors: John Sutton and David Calfe of the cantred of Shirbryn; Thomas Synot and John Roche of Faryngevale; Philip Stafford and Geoffrey fitz Edmund Whittey of Fotherte; Howellin Rede and Andrew Furlang of Rosse [New Ross]; John Nevyle and William fitz Matthew Hore of Shirmaler; Nicholas Broun and Nicholas Deveros of Bargy; Maurice Wadyng and Walter Morne of the town of Wexford[227]

1412, February: Grant to John Corryngham of various properties in Dublin, Co. Meath and one messuage in Wexford town that formerly belonged to Maurice Benger. To have for life by the recommendation of Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire., deputy of the King's son Thomas of Lancaster[228]

1414: the settlers of Wexford attack MacMurrough and were defeated[229]

1414, July: commission to Patrick, bishop of Ferns, of all lands [etc.] that belonged to John fitz Henry in Co. Wexford, in King's hand by his outlawry; to have for as long as they are in the King's hand, rendering the extent by mainprize of William Sutton of Co. Dublin[230]

1415, February: a pardon was given to John Roche, former sheriff of Wexford, in a suit of peace for treasons; and also of all debts & arrears of accounts. This was attested by Sir John Talbot of Halomshire, Lieutenant of Ireland[231]

1415, July: Licence for Brother James Coytyff, his confrere, and Nicholas White at act for the prior of the house of St John the Baptist outside the New Gate of Dublin in Munster and Cos. Kilkenny and Wexford for his defence in pleas and matters concerning himself and his said house for one year because of the danger of the roads[232]

1415, August: pardon to John Drake of Dublin & William Ballylongge, John Yngoll, John Hereford & John Wynter, chaplains, of all intrusions in various lands in Cos. Dublin, Meath, Kilkenny & in lands in Bannow, Co. Wexford; also of all debts & accounts owed; & confirmation of the estate & possession which they have in the said lands[233]

1416: John Talbot of Halomshire, Lieutenant of Ireland, read letters patent of Henry V to John Newe and Patrick Coterell, restoring to them the tenements of Mountgarret in Wexford and Kylry in Kilkenny granted to them by Patrick Baret, late bishop of Ferns and falsely seized by Thomas Moyn under a false letter from the Irish exchequer[234]

1416, January: grant to Walter Talbot of the marshalsea office within Co. Wexford before all justices holding sessions, both in the Ex. and the common bench in that county; to have for life, with the due fees, for services[235]

1416, May: instructions to John Yonge, abbot of Tintern; Walter Grace, prior of Selskar; & Thomas, seneschal of Wexford, to elect a man from the crosslands of Co. Wexford, who is without suspicion to be sheriff of the crosslands for the next term; & his oath is to be taken before you that he will serve faithfully[236]

1416, October: pardon John Coryngham, clerk, of suit of peace for all treasons & trespasses committed by him, for which he was outlawed. Pardon to John of all intrusions & abatements committed by him in various properties in Dublin, Wexford, Ardras & Trynet, with ratification of his claim in the lands. Pardon to him of all debts & accounts owed to the King[237]

1416, October: appointment of Hugh burgh & Patrick Coterell to inquire in Cos. Kilkenny, Waterford & Wexford into all goods, chattels, lands that belonged to Thomas, late bishop of Ossory, from October 1408 to date. Also concerning all other goods & chattels owed to the King in those counties by people deceased (and current owners) or people still living & have not made satisfaction. They are to extend the episcopal lands & of other debtors & keep in safe custody. They should inquire which people live in those lands or are absent or were absent at time of coronation of Henry IV or since contrary to the ordinance of Richard II. They are also to seize all debts of sheriffs, escheators, collectors of customs & farmers in those counties, & any others unpaid. They are to seize the temporalities of the said bishop[238]

1416, February: appointment of Nicholas son of Matthew Frensche and John Hay as coroners in Co. Wexford[239]

1417, July: John Barry, former sheriff of Wexford, pleaded that he owed the King various sums but because he has been removed from office, he no longer can levy them = order to levy, collect and receive the various sums owed by debtors in the county = he is to return the said amercements to the Ex., & be diligent in these matters[240]

1417, December: writ to the seneschal of Wexford and the sheriff of the crosslands to ensure that Thomas Butler, prior of the Knights Hospitallers in Ireland attends the next parliament and to say when and where they post proclamations to this effect[241]

1417, February: grant to Henry Rochefort of the office of sheriff of the crosslands of Co. Wexford, during pleasure following his election[242]

1420: the effective county of Wexford was defined as the four southern baronies of Forth, Bargy, Shelburne and Shelmalier (see 1375)[243]

1420, October: appointment of John Lumbard, John Chever, Patrick Coterell, Robert Folyng, William fitz Gerote, & Stephen Pembroke to inquire, hear and determine in Cos. Kilkenny, Wexford and Waterford concerning treasons, felonies etc.; to deliver the gaols within those counties; and to hear and determine pleas, assizes, & to deliver the K.'s writs to sheriffs [etc.] within those counties[244]

1420, February: By assent of Richard Talbot, archbishop of Dublin, deputy of the Lt of Ire., grant to Richard Northorp, clerk, and Hugh Venables (for service and £40 paid at the Exchequer) the custody of all the property in Co. Wexford, in the King's hand by the death of Gilbert Talbot who held in chief by knight service, and held by minority of the heir; to have for as long as they remain [245]

1420, June: grant to John Chever custody of all the property in Co. Wexford belonging to the late Gilbert Talbot, Lord of Wexford, for as long as they remain in the King's hand, rendering the extent[246]

1420, July: order to John Wyche, baron of the Ex. to inquire the true value of all castles, manors [etc.] in Co. Wexford, in the K.'s hand[247]

1420-June 1428: An insufficient inquisition on a writ of certiorari concerning the manor or lordship of Bannow, Co. Wexford, = another writ appointed 8 judges to inquire upon the premises. They said that Elizabeth Comyn was seised of the manor in fee, & she married John Bromwich kt, & had issue Anna; & Elizabeth died, after whose death John held the lordship by the law of Eng., with reversion to Gilbert Talbot as son & heir of Elizabeth, begotten between her & John Talbot kt. Gilbert gave the reversion to Robert Evere & Ismania his wife, to have to them & the heirs of Robert forever. By force of that grant, John Bromwich nominated them as attorneys, &later surrendered the manor to them; & John died. Afterwards Ismania married John Drake. & James Evere, son & heir of Robert, confirmed the estate to John Drake, & Ismania held the manor, & Ismania died on 1st Jan. 1420. & John was 50 years plus, & married to Alice Preston long before the death of Ismania. Order to cause James to have full seisin[248]

1421, April: order to pay £4 to Maurice Stafford, Walter Shirlok & William Baldewyne, lately appointed to inquire in Cos. Wexford, Kilkenny, Waterford, Tipperary & elsewhere concerning various articles, juries, & other matters touching the K.'s business and profit[249]

1421, April: pardon to Hugh English of Wexford of outlawry due to debt by suit of John Trody, citizen of Dublin, at the common bench.[250]

1421, April: grant to John Chever (by mainprize of Nicholas Deveros and James Chever of Co. Wexford) of two thirds of the property in Co. Wexford, of Gilbert Talbot, lord of Wexford, deceased, during pleasure, rendering the extent[251]

1421, July: appointment of Nicholas Broun, Robert Folyng & Geoffrey fitz Mayo to levy, collect all sums of money in Co. Wexford leviable of the royal service lately proclaimed at Louth in the following form, viz.: £4 from the baronies of Roscarlan and Novell, for two royal services; 10s from the barony of Moldaryng for a quarter service; £10 from the baronies of Shirmall and Konaloyowe for four services; 10s from the baronies of Moulhyreke and Kenealoyowe for a quarter service; 20s from Ballyardwill for half a service[252]

1421, October: appointment of John Hibard, Robert Folyng, Maurice Stafford, Patrick Cotrell, John Chever & William fitz Gerauld as justice to inquire in Co. Wexford & six other counties & the crosslands, concerning treasons, felonies [etc.], hear & determine them; and take assizes; make all writs, both original & judicial, to deliver them to the King's ministers; & such writs have same force as under the great seal[253]

1422, April: appointment of John Neville, baron of Roscarlon, as seneschal of the Wexford liberty[254]

1422, December: appointed of Nicholas Broun of Molrankane and John Praate as deputies for the escheator of Ireland in Co. Wexford and as deputy clerks of the market and keepers of weights and measures[255]

1423, November: election and appointment of Robert son of William Bosschier as sheriff of Co. Wexford, during pleasure[256]

1423, November: On 20 June 1423 the King granted to John Wyche & Nicholas Deveros custody of two thirds of all the property that belonged to Matthew St John in Co. Wexford, on the death of Matthew & the minority of William his heir; with the reversion of the one third that Cecilia holds in dower. On the examination of council found the writs from chancery were wrong & the King deceived = revoking the writs[257]

1423, December: grant to John son of Adam Ketyn of Co. Wexford (mainprize of John Stafford tailor of Dublin & John s. of Richard Weys of Co. Wexford), custody of the property of Matthew St John in Co. Wexford, during pleasure, rendering £4 p.a. at the Ex[258]

1423, March: grant to James Kent of the office of escheator in Co. Wexford, with office of clerk of the market in the liberty, without rendering anything, for war service[259]

1424, July: writ to arrest shipping for the passage to Ireland of Edmund Mortimer to the sovereign & provosts of New Ross; the sovereign & provosts of Wexford & other Irish ports[260]



New Ross


1424, July: appointment of John Sutton, James Furlong & Maurice Avenell to inquire in Cos. Wexford & Waterford concerning carrying customable wool [etc.] out of those ports & pay custom to the King[261]

1424, August: an inquisition, time of Henry V, before Walter Whittey, claimed deputy escheator, found Henry Latymer seised of 1 messuage & 80 acres of land in Remundcodestoun, gave the same in fee to David Wadyng, then sheriff of Co. Wexford, contrary to statutes & ordinances. Later Walter Ocborne pleaded in chancery that he was seised as of fee of the property until removed by the inquisition; that Walter Whittey was not deputy escheator at the time = decided in chancery to remove the king’s hand[262]

1424, February: On 30 Dec. 1422 the King granted to Nicholas Deveros esq. two thirds of all lands of Nicholas son of John Hey deceased of Co. Wexford, in the King's hand of the minority of Robert, his son & heir; with reversion of one third that Joan holds in dower, & marriage of heir. But letters emanated fraudulently and improvidently & so revoked[263]

1424, February: grant, by 40s, to William Chevyr of custody of all lands of Nicholas son of John Hay in Co. Wexford, to hold until Robert comes of age, together with his marriage[264]

1424, February: on advice of the bishop of Meath, grant, for service & 6m paid at the receipt of the Ex., to Richard, archbishop of Dublin, of custody of all the property of Matthew St John, deceased, within Co. Wexford, by minority of William Seynt Johan, his cousin & heir, a minor; rendering 6m p.a. (correct value 10m), with marriage of the heir[265]

1425, April: Donat O’Byrne pledge to protect the lordship of Wexford and the king and Talbot tenants within while allowing the Dublin government to exercise jurisdiction in his own territory = witnessed by five people & many others[266]

1425, April: pardon to Nicholas Broun, ex-sheriff of Co. Wexford, of outlawry upon a process in debt, at the suit of the Earl of Ormond, former Lt of Henry V in Ire[267]

1425, April: John Talbot, lord of Talbot, Furnival & Wexford, by his deed made at Wexford gave Selskar priory the chapel of St Nicholas of Carrick, & the advowson with its appurtenances, in pure & perpetual alms forever, which chapel & advowson are held of the King in chief = inspeximus & confirmation in 1437[268]

1425, May: commission to James Cornewalsh (by mainprize of William Chevyr and Hugh Wogan of Co. Wexford), custody of all lands in Bieurepeir1 and Ryngerestoun; to have for as long as in the K.'s hand, rendering the true value p.a.[269]

1425, May at Wexford: John, Lord Talbot, Furnival & Wexford appointed Nicholas Broun as seneschal of his liberty of Wexford for as long as the said lord may please, with due & accustomed fees[270]

1426: John, Lord Talbot and Furnival, desires to absent himself from Ireland and asks to receive all issues, rents and profits of his property in Ireland and be sent to England notwithstanding the statute concerning absentees in Ireland = licence granted 25th July 1426[271]

1427, March: John, Lord Talbot, Furnyvale & Wexford appointed esquire Thomas Everyngham as seneschal of the county and lordship of Wexford, during pleasure = 6 Aug. 1427 Thomas took his corporal oath in chancery as seneschal of the said liberty[272]

1427, May: petition of Nicholas Hay, son of William of Sleade, on account of laudable service, the King took him into special friendship, appointed him prefect of the arc of Wexford, and granted him £50 of his gift[273]

1427, October; Robert, bishop of Ferns, with assent of dean & chapter, gave to Selskar priory the parochial church of Ardcaven & advowson, parcel of the bishopric temporalities & held in chief, the K.’s licence of alienation not obtained = king willing to accept the licence of late Richard II (1395) as ignorance of the priory in making such acquisitions, & their poverty & the ruin of the rents & possessions of the priory by Irish enemies, = grant pardon and release of trespasses in acquisition & release to priory of any royal rights = inspeximus & confirmation in 1437[274]

1430, October: pardon to Andrew St John of all intrusions of all property in Tamahagyrt, Tyllaghdowan & Munsyn, Co. Wexford; & confirmation of his status; & pardon him of suit of peace for treasons[275]

1431: John Keating was seneschal of the liberty of Wexford and sheriff of the cross lands there = in 1442-44 he was the ex-seneschal and receive pay from the Dublin exchequer[276]

1432, February: appointment of Earl of Ormond; James Cornewalshe, chief baron of Ex.; Robert Folyng of Kilkenny; & Robert Lyncoll of Waterford, to inquire in Co. Wexford & six other counties concerning treasons, etc.[277]

1435, February: commission to David Roche (by mainprize of Thomas Roche & Richard Barry of Wexford town) of custody of 12 acres, with appurtenances, at Bourekarryk, Co. Wexford, during pleasure[278]

1436, March: agreed that James Blakeney, escheator of Ire., & clerk of the market, weights & measures could appoint Walter son of Thomas St John, John Sutton, John son of Dionisius Stafford, Nicholas Everard & John Broun as his deputies in Cos. Kilkenny, Wexford, Tipperary and Waterford as Blakeney is occupied in wars with the Lord Deputy[279]

1437, July: inspeximus and confirmation to Selskar priory of property acquired in 1425 and 1427 above[280]

1439, October: Richard Talbot, archbishop of Dublin, lodged a certain tally of £24 at the Exchequer in Easter term 1437 from the royal service of Wexford, proclaimed at Mullingar, for John Talbot, tenant, for Richard, archbishop of Dublin; & that tenant was unwilling to receive that tally = order to pay £24 to the archbishop[281]

1440, September: various inquisitions found John [Mowbray], late duke of Norfolk, held the following lands, viz.: the manor of Olde Rosse with the town of New Ross, and the castle and Hervey island of the King by knight service, worth £10 p.a.; the manor of Ballysax, Co. Kildare, of the King by knight service, worth 20s p.a.; and the castle of Carlow with the corporation of the county and borough there; and the manor of Fethard, of the king by knight service, worth 12d p.a. = had issue John, his son and heir, then 17 years old. King respited the homage of John, the son, for 6s 8d. Order to have full seisin[282]

1441, May: May. In the council chamber in the abbey of St Mary on the good governance & keeping laws in parts of Kilkenny, Wexford, Waterford, Tipperary, Limerick & Kerry; how it necessary with all haste that William Chevyr, second justice at pleas, & Edward Somerton, serjeant-at-laws, should proceeded to those counties & William have 6s 8d a day for costs & Edward 4s a day[283]

1441, August: Andrew Sampford made fine of 6s 8d with the King because he seized into the King's hand two carucates of land in Leawnaght, Saveshill & Somereston, Co. Wexford; when he was neither escheator nor deputy escheator at the time of seizure[284]

1446: John Talbot as the king’s lieutenant in Ireland was described as Earls of Shrewsbury, Lord of Wexford and Waterford, Lord Talbot, Lord Furnival and Lord Lestrange[285]

In later times government documents and the crown style the Earl of Shrewsbury by the imaginary title of Earl of Wexford while at the same time recognising his cousin Lord Grey de Ruthyn by the imaginary title of Baron of Wexford[286]

1450, May: commission to David Cowan clerk of custody of the lands of Simon Keally in Co. Wexford; for as long as in King's hand, rendering the true value[287]

1450, August at Wexford: John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury and of Wexford and Waterford, Lord Talbot, Furnival, le Straunge, Verdon', seneschal and constable of Ire., has appointed John Penyngton as seneschal of the liberty of Wexford; with a mandate to the sheriff of the liberty and all other officers to obey[288]

1450, November at Wexford: John, Earl of Shrewsbury, appointed John Rowcestre as seneschal of Wexford liberty; with a mandate to the sheriff & all other officers obey him[289]

1455: the seneschal the Wexford liberty and the sovereign of Wexford town wrote to the great magnates (the Earl of Ormond and the 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury, claimant to the liberty against Lord Grey de Ruthyn) and to parliament complaining that Edmund Butler and Thomas of Desmond had joined with the Kavanaghs to plunder and burn across County Wexford for four days and nights[290]

1458: act of parliament 36 Henry VI 28 allow licence for William Welleston to mine at Clonmines, Co. Wexford and elsewhere[291]

1463: act of parliament 3 Edward IV 45 relating to the walls of Wexford town[292]

1471: act of parliament 11 Edward IV 24 relating to the lands in Wexford that were parcels of the house of St John of Jerusalem in Ireland[293]

1472: act of parliament 12 Edward IV 4 liberty of Meath dissolved[294]

1494/5: Wexford contributed something to the rising of tax revenues[295]

1499, March: the seneschal of the liberty and cross-lands of Wexford was fined along with the sheriffs of Kilkenny, Waterford, Cork and Limerick for not returning writs for the parliament at Dublin = the abbot of Dunbrody was fined for non-attendance = at the second session in August 1499 at Castledermot the bishop along with the dean and chapter of Ferns were fined for non-attendance[296]

1500-16th century: copy of a document of the time of Edward II showing title to the lands of Thomas of Brotherton in Carlow & Wexford & its descent to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, and Maurice, Lord Berkeley in Pembroke College library at Cambridge University[297]

1509-1602: the Tudor fiants of King Henry VIII, King Edward VI, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth contain much relating to the liberty, county and towns of Wexford

1511: Selskar abbey had free election of its prior since foundation but a secular priest, supported by the Wexford liberty justice administration, put out the prior and took possession[298]

1514: absentees Earl of Shrewsbury, Duke of Norfolk and Lord Berkeley told to become activity involved in their Irish estates = Lord Berkeley appoint Archbishop Kite as his attorney in Carlow & Wexford = no evidence Norfolk appointed an Irish attorney[299]

1515: it was suggested that the re-conquest and reform of Ireland should begin in South Leinster and push back the Kavanagh, O’Byrne and O’Toole families who are weak. English captains with little attachments in England be given various properties and settle English tenants [early plantation scheme] = abbeys near the Irish be suppressed [30 years before the Reformation] and given to these captains as their chief fortresses = Dunbrody, Tintern, Duiske and Baltinglass in one parcel; Old Ross and the fassagh of Bentry (Benntraige or Bargy?) another parcel; the castles of Carlow, Leighlin, Rathvilly and Clonmore; the lordship of Wexford with the castles of Ferns, Kevyne, Wicklow, Rathlown, Powerstown and Arklow as another parcel = these properties were owned by religious orders, absentee landlords and Irish resident landlords[300]    

1515, circa: only half of County Wexford is subject to the king’s law = proposal that settlers from every English parish be settled in Ulster & in the land between Dublin & New Ross & Wexford[301]

1518: Gerald Fitzgerald, 9th Earl of Kildare, held the manor of Dyppys and the manor of Enniscorthy with other property include part of the manor of Old Ross[302]

1518-9: Earl Kildare entered Wexford to collect coign & livery among hisown tenants & those of Earl Shrewsbury[303]

1519: Earl Shrewsbury got warrant to arm 40 retainers & set to Wexford to stop rebels withholding revenues[304]

1520: Cardinal Wolsey asked to settle that ongoing dispute between Waterford and New Ross on liberties and trading rights considering the great cost to both towns, especially New Ross[305]

1520: Earl Shrewsbury appoint Englishman John Bikley or Dickley as seneschal with power to grant new copyholds[306]

1524: the Earl of Kildare was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland with a list of various instructions including number 14 that “He is to cause sheriffs, escheators, coroners and other officers to be made yearly in the shires of Meath, Dublin, Louth, Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, Waterford and Limerick and appoint justices of the peace in each shire and hold quarter sessions[307]

1525: the Earl of Ormond took 40 marks, as a penalty, from the seneschal of the county of Wexford because the latter took part with Kildare against the king’s Irish enemies[308]

1534: the Earl of Shrewsbury holds the liberty of Wexford but administrates little justice and the king receives little revenue except the poundage of Wexford town[309] 

1534: Kildare liberty described as a ‘pretended liberty’ and London ordered it abolished[310]

1534: Piers Butler, Earl of Ossory, grants 60 years lease of all his Irish property to Thomas Lord Berkeley[311]

1535: the treasurer of war in Ireland recommends to Cromwell that the king should seize the county of Wexford and castle of Carlow and other lands from spiritual men in England and banish the Irish inhabitants[312]

1536: act of absentees that Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk and Lord Berkeley claim as ancestral inheritance the seigniory and lordship of Carlow, Old Ross and various other manors. George Talbot, Earl of Waterford and Shropshire, claims the seigniory of Wexford … by their negligence and disorder thereof, and especially within the counties of Carlow and Wexford … the king shall have, hold and enjoy all honours, manors, castles, seigniories, hundreds, franchises, liberties, county palatines etc[313]

1536: inquisition of the lordship of Carlow held by Norfolk and Berkeley say in County Wexford that they have the manors of Fassabentre, Innescorty (Enniscorthy) and Dypse with the castle and manor of Ferns and the villa of Old Ross.[314]= some of these properties were granted by King Richard II to Sir John Beaumont in 1395[315]= the inquisition to the lands of the Earl of Shrewsbury says he holds the manor of Rosslare, Ballymore, Balmaskellers, Barge, and Kyldowan along with the town of Wexford with various chief rents[316] = most of these lands lie in south Wexford = it appears that the Earl of Shrewsbury recovered some of his estate as in the time of Charles 1, the family of FitzNichol held Ballycowan in Forth as of the Earl of Shrewsbury’s castle of Wexford[317]

1536: acts of the Dublin parliament, chapter 24: that the liberty of the county of Wexford shall be continued and put in execution in like manner and in the same strength and effect as George, the now Earl of Shrewsbury had since the first grant of the said liberty[318] = act of Parliament 28 Henry VIII 24 liberty of Wexford = Act of parliament 28 Henry VIII 32 town of Wexford[319] = full reading of act 28H24 relating to the liberty of Wexford and of 28H32 to Wexford town[320]

1536, January: unless Kavanagh, O’Byrne & O’Toole be reformed the king’s peace not secured but difficult to banish the three nations = instead build fortresses among them & get them to submit[321]

1536, June: 300 horsemen should be resident in County Wexford and Ferns castle (held by the lord treasurer) and there used to survey the king’s new lands and win back the country occupied by the Kavanaghs and O’Byrnes between Dublin and Wexford by March 1537 (new style) and clear of Irish and available for English settlers[322]

1536, summer: Alex Keating says a parliament act by Cromwell gives Wexford county the same liberty as enjoyed under the Earl of Shrewsbury excepting the four pleas, burning houses, rape, forestalling & treasure trove = ask that all rights of Wexford be written into the act as the Dublin administration would interfere = let liberty officers be Englishmen and resident in the county = co. gentlemen paid £40 to Cromwell to obtain their liberty = let no coign & livery by Dublin administration be imposed on Wexford[323]

1536, July: Ferns castle was taken from McMurrough and garrisoned = one of the most ancient and strongest castles in Ireland = former property of Earl of Shrewsbury or Duke of Norfolk [Thomas Alen didn’t know which] = worth 500 marks and a strong base to re-conquer north Wexford[324]

1536/7: breviat of Chief Baron Finglas on re-conquest of Ireland [written at various times between 1524 & 1537] recommended suppressing abbeys of Duiske, Graney, Dunbrody, Tintern and Baltinglass as they support the Irish more that the English [see 1515 above] = give various places to English lords, knights & gentlemen including Old Ross with fassagh Bentry, the castles of Leighlin, Carlow, Rathvilly, Clonmore, Ferns and others; the lordship of Wexford; divide the lands of Kavanagh, O’Byrne and O’Toole among English captains[325]

1537, January: sovereign and council of Wexford ask that Selskar priory be changed into a college with the prior as parson and governor and the canons as priests = the greater part of the priory tithes are held by the king’s enemies[326]

1537, March (new style): county Wexford borders the Kavanaghs = the king leased certain lands in the fassagh of Banauntrey (Benntraige alias Bantry or Bargy?) to Richard Butler yet McMurough Kavanagh judges inhabit the district and Irish rymers daily take and destroy from the king’s poor subjects of County Wexford[327] 

1537, June: Walter Browne, John Devereux & Alex Keating acknowledge the grant of wages to William St Leo, Watkin ap Powell and 46 others for the defence of Wexford liberty = seek lease of king’s revenues to fund defence; right to appoint officers and pay county officers in exchange for 100 marks per year to Irish exchequer = king’s revenue 250 marks of which £44 used to pay clerks and liberty officers = Earl of Shrewsbury’s farmers previously appointed officers[328]

1537, June: sovereign and commons of Wexford ask for remission of the chief rents to the king to help the town fund its defences as Waterford and other towns = earl of Shrewsbury’s officers would allow the town hold the rent[329]

1537, July: king instructs Irish commissioners to present various acts to parliament including the continuation of the Wexford liberty[330]

1537, September: James Sherlock appointed king’s receiver in Wexford & have some honest farm for his fee[331]

1537, October: Durbrordy Island or Great Island in Wexford granted to Piers Butler, Earl of Ossory, along with various ancient properties of the Earls of Ormond across Kilkenny, Tipperary, Waterford, Kildare, Carlow, Meath, modern Wicklow and Dublin by letters patent[332]

1537, October: Acts of Parliament for the continuation of the liberty of Wexford and another act confirming the ancient liberties of Wexford town[333]

1537: presentment of jury of Wexford town recalling various crimes since the start of the reign by Kavanagh, Keating, Roche (who burnt a church with people inside) and others[334]

1537: presentment by the shire of Wexford of various crimes including Irish attacking Ross, Earl Ossory robbing people, others using papal bulls = Ferns abbey & Durbard’s Island are the king’s property[335]

1537: presentment of commons of Wexford that Earl Ossory seized the king’s castle on Durbard’s Island from constable John Devereux & seized Mountgarrett by Ross & Dunbrody lands = barony Carnew and manor Ferns are the king’s property = Kavanagh holds Enniscorthy = other crimes 22 to 28 Henry VIII[336]

1537: presentment of Ross town of various crimes committed on the town by Anglo-Irish families in county Wexford in company with the Kavanaghs = property within the franchise fell to the king by treason of Thomas Bryton & others = citizens of Waterford with Spanish, French, Breton and Irish bombarded Ross in May 10 Henry VIII (1519)[337]

1537: the attained Earl of Kildare held the tithes of Killeugh in County Wexford, worth 27s, his only possession in that county[338] = this is in contrast to 1518 above = in 1630s the Kildare estate in County Wexford included much of the 1518 estate which were returned to the Kildare estate by Philip & Mary = includes Deep manor, part of manor of Old Ross, Killankie manor, Sowey manor, = some property was purchased into the Kildare estate in the time of Queen Elizabeth[339] = [one document may not give the full story – a few documents can – yet often we are just left with the one document]

1537: the king gathers little revenue from the four counties of Tipperary, Waterford, Kilkenny and Wexford except where the Earl of Kildare or Earl of Ormond has property in three of the our shires[340]

1537: a memorial presented to Leonard Grey on the re-conquest of South Leinster [State Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1, no. 162] repeats an earlier breviat on the conquest of south Leinster by Patrick Finglas[341] = the 1537 paper recommends creating an Earl of Carlow with possession of the manors of Baltinglass abbey, Rathvilly, Clonmore, Carlow, Idrone barony, and all the property of James Fitzgerald along with title of lord of Ferns with the manor of Ferns = English captains be appointed to various locations and maintain a military force for 2 or 3 years = areas include Enniscorthy and its barony; Duiske abbey and adjoining barony; Old Ross and the fassagh of Bentry = Irish people living in England be returned to settle in various towns of including Ferns, Enniscorthy, Ross, Leighlinbridge, Carlow, and Castledermot[342]

1537: the four counties above the Barrow should have their justice administrated from a court in Waterford until the Kavanagh, O’Byrne and O’Toole are banished = fees paid to Wexford liberty officers and priory St. Katherine by Waterford pay for this[343]

1538: William St. Lowe to Thomas Cromwell says he only has the seneschalship of Wexford (worth 25 marks) to live on as the property he was granted borders the Kavanaghs and he can’t get the 25 marks per year[344]

1538: Walter Cowley asks Thomas Wriothesley to get letters from Lord Cromwell to help a plaintiff at the Wexford county assize court who could lose his land if he lost[345]

1538: Sir Richard Butler appointed constable of Ferns castle, displacing the Kavanagh hold = he was last Anglo-Irish constable as he was succeeded by new English constables[346]

1539: writ issued 1st July by William St. Lowe, seneschal of Wexford for an inquisition into the rights and powers of the liberty = 15th July sheriff’s precept to Edmund Nangle and Stephen Rowe to assemble a jury = 8th August inquisition held before Hamund Stafford, sheriff of Wexford which said that Wexford is a county palatine which has existed for time immemorial and its powers are described[347] = officers hold all pleas except four; arson, rape, forestall and treasure trove; correction of officers in the crossland by lord deputy commissioners; liberty officers are seneschal, chancellor, judge, treasurer, escheator, sheriff, coroner and constable; chancellor has chancery court; all in the towns of Rosponte, Old Ross in Bentry, Arklow, Ferns, Carrig on Bannow are answerable to the liberty officers = attorney of the liberty lord with 4 or 6 justices of the peace[348]

1539, September: Robert Cowley to Lord Privy Seal saying, among other things, that the liberty of Wexford should be dissolved[349]

1539: John Devereux of Wexford to Thomas Cromwell describes how he and his family served the Earls of Shrewsbury as lords of Wexford = how Anthony St. Leger was chancellor of the county palatine but his patent was disallowed by John Allen, the lord chancellor of Ireland and others = James White, justice of the liberty also serves as recorder of Waterford and justice in Tipperary for Lord Ossory and can’t live in Wexford and desires to retire = John Devereux seeks the job of justice of Wexford at £10 fee and not at the present reduced fee because the chancellors were mere unlearned keepers of the seal[350]

1539: R. Cowley to Thomas Cromwell says that St. Lowe keeps his Wexford troops away from the Lord Deputy and instead  pillages the countryside = says the liberty of Wexford should be dissolved[351]

1540-1621: the McMurrough Kavanaghs and other Kavanaghs held actual possession of the barony of Scarawalsh including Ferns, Enniscorthy and Clohamon = the crown spent the next one hundreds trying to gain control[352]

1541: the various properties of the Earl of Shrewsbury in Wexford were worth nothing because their revenue was in the account of James Sherlock, receiver of Wexford County[353]

1542: the king receives little revenue from the subsidies due out of Counties Wexford and Waterford and the abbey of Glascarrig which is in Kavanagh country[354]

1542: employ those receiving fees out of Wexford liberty to be a council of learned men to discuss the better government of Limerick and Waterford city[355]

1543: king’s revenue from Ireland included the fees of the officers of the county and liberty of Wexford

1543-1571: long process of surrender and regrant of the Kavanagh lands in Scarawalsh and north Wexford[356]

1544: Henry Draycott came from Derbyshire to Ireland and was made treasurer of the lordship of Wexford and received crown lands there for his income. he went on to become chief remembrancer and then chancellor of the exchequer and MP for Naas in 1559 and master of the rolls in 1566 acquiring forfeited estates in Meath and Louth along the way[357]

1546: Lord Chancellor Alen replies to English Privy Council to various ‘false’ charges against him including that he never infringed the liberty of Wexford and awarded no process other than the English chancellor does in English liberties = and although liberty officers often make false returns, Alen doesn’t amerce them[358]

1549: Wexford and Carlow within the list of counties that obey the king’s rule[359]

1549: plans for the Kavanagh lordship around Ferns be made into a county with Walter Cowley as sheriff thereof = two seneschals to serve among the Irish of Leinster[360]

1553: Francis Agarde was constable of Ferns castle and in 1554 made constable of Wexford castle. Afterwards prefect or seneschal of Wexford[361]



Vaulting in the chapel of Ferns castle


1553: the Lord Deputy lately met McMurough Kavanagh and received his obedience = English captains placed at Leighlin, Ferns and Enniscorthy and some at St Mullins and between Kavanagh and County Wexford to contain him[362]

1556: the officers of Wexford to be paid from the Dublin exchequer accounts[363]

1556: proposals to have a garrison at Ferns and let the bishop of Ferns be resident there = north Wexford needs to be secured or there will be no peace[364]

1558: proposal, repeating earlier proposals, for the creation of an Earl of Carlow and lord of Ferns to control an area extending from County Carlow across north Wexford to Ferns and Enniscorthy = it also talks of a garrison at Glascarrig decayed priory, Ferns and Enniscorthy suggesting that these places were as yet unsettled[365]

1559: parliament act to make the area of O’Byrne country, O’Toole, Imaal, Kinsellagh and Ferter into a shire with Wicklow as the shire town = make Arklow to Glascarrig into a shire = make Kavanagh country into a shire based on Ferns = make McMurroug’s (MacVaddock) land and part of Mountgarrett’s land into a shire with Enniscorthy as the shire town = that only Wexford be a port for international trade with others but not New Ross = wine limit imports to Wexford of 80 tuns = ask Mountgarret to leave Enniscorthy and replace with English captain = if Heron leaves Ferns replace with a junior officer[366]

1562: the Kavanaghs hold parts of Wexford and Carlow and their chief claims to be king of Leinster = lately under Queen’s obedience = contain them with an English captain in the Queen’s castles of Leighlin, Ferns and Enniscorthy and district with 20 harquebuziers and 20 horsemen = authority to collect £360 rent from the Kavanagh and command the queens forces in Counties Carlow and Wexford with authority of martial law[367]

1566: Wexford was cessed in place of Louth to pay for a border army as Louth was already paying for the Newry garrison[368]

1566: Anthony Colclough desired extra 30 year lease on Tintern abbey to fortify it which the queen agreed but was not implemented and in 1568 the queen had to renew her desire for the extension of the lease[369]

1566: Wexford to be restored to its previous civil state with the suppression of the rebellion by the O’Tooles, O’Byrnes and Kavanaghs[370]

1566: the bishop of Ferns has put away the revenues of the bishopric for his sons[371] = Nicholas Devereux, a ward of the Earl of Shrewsbury, wishes to become bishop of Ferns and retain the deanery because the living is small[372]

1568: the Lord Deputy should restore to the Earl of Kildare the former estates of his family but exclude the manor of Old Ross and other lands in the county of Wexford that did not belong to the Earl and came to the crown by other title[373]

1568: the Queen says Arthur Keating to be restored his father’s fee farm of Kilcony in County Wexford seized by Henry VIII from his father by reason of treason = Richard Devereux of Wexford to have 21 year lease of property and facilities around the towns of Wexford and Enniscorthy[374]

1568: Edward Fitzsimons to be justice of Wexford[375]

1568: Carrickfergus and Wexford supply timber to the Earl of Argyll to build galleys so that Sorley Boy can invade Antrim from Scotland = soldiers were sent to Carrickfergus to stop this trade = orders sent to Wexford to stop trading[376]

1568: the O’Byrnes and Kavanaghs of Wexford are quiet[377]

1568: New Ross imports 100 tuns of wine while Wexford imports 60 tuns at a duty of 40s a ton most other ports import 200 tuns and above with Galway the top port with 1,000 tuns[378]

1568: a proposal by Joseph Brett that Munster and the county known as Wexford be granted to various good subjects of the king in return for a variable rent assessed on land quality[379]

1568: Nicholas White appointed seneschal of Wexford[380]

1569: Thomas Stukeley, late of Enniscorthy was seneschal of Wexford[381]= Nicholas White replaced Stukeley as constable of Wexford castle[382] Sir Nicholas Heron was made constable of Ferns but went off to England and left it to a local person = Cecil would like Nicholas White to be seneschal of Wexford = White was to get the ward of Leighlin house but Sidney gave it to somebody else on Carew’s recommendation[383]

1569: Thomas Masterson, constable of Ferns, accuses Stukeley of evil practices = White to be seneschal of Wexford at own cost although White wants the considerable that previous seneschals got[384]

1569: Stukeley became seneschal of Wexford and then ran it without consider of the Queen’s will = Heron wants to be seneschal of Wexford[385]

1569: proposed bills in parliament to include the bishop and chapter of Ferns to reside in Wexford town = the grants of bishops Purcell and Alexander of Ferns to be declared void[386]

1569: Francis Agard patrolling north Wexford between Arklow, Ferns and the Barrow[387]

1569: act of parliament 11 Eliz 9 reads an act for turning of counties that be not yet shire grounds into shire grounds[388]

1569: proposed that Sir Nicholas Devereux be appointed captain of County Wexford with power to levy cess to pay for the army[389]

1570: Nicholas White trying to rule Wexford by law which is an ancient county palatine with well-established borders = White says other counties ruled by captains would be better served if ruled by law[390]

1570: Nicholas White is responsible for the government of Wexford and justice for travellers in 35 mile zone. He punished the Kavanaghs by spilling blood but his position is under treat.[391]

1570: Wexford paid £300 on wine customs and fines relating to leases and pardons while Ross paid £8 8s 8d[392]

1571: Captain Thomas Masterson as sheriff of Wexford retains 11 men[393]

1571: Nicholas White is seneschal of Wexford[394] = he lives on a fee of £25 Irish[395]

1571: Thomas Stukeley is in league with Catholic armies in Europe[396]

1572: Nicholas White, seneschal of Wexford, petitions for farms and goods of felons as previous seneschals had to maintain his office.[397] Lord Deputy Fitzwilliam recommends the house of Enniscorthy as the seat of the seneschal of Wexford for White[398] = house of Enniscorthy kept for the seneschal as long as that office remains[399]

1572: Thomas Masterson desires to be seneschal of Wexford[400]

1572: the various branches of the Kavanaghs hold property in Counties Wexford and Carlow but are in a weaken state with few horsemen and thieves on foot and can be easily brought within the law[401]

1572: Richard Synnott of Ballybrennan holds Enniscorthy friary & manor along with Clohamon, Downe & lands of Donal O Morrow = Thomas Masterson holds Ferns manor & abbey lands[402]

1572, June: cess levied on the five counties of The Pale (Louth, Meath, Westmeath, Dublin, and Kildare) and Wexford[403]

1573: County Wexford sent Anthony Power as their agent to visit Secretary Walsingham to discuss the reimbursement of cess levied on County Wexford backdated to 1558[404]

1577: died Francis Agarde and buried in Christ Church, Dublin. The monument erected by his son-in-law, Henry Harrigton, records in Latin that Agarde was = postea comitatui Wexfordiae praepositus = afterwards appointed prefect of Co. Wexford = prefect is assumed to mean seneschal of Wexford[405]

1579: all but a few in County Wexford have taken on the Irish habit, armour, laws and exactions = Wexford town pay £6 13s 4d in cess like Youghal and behind places like Cork £13 6s 8d, Waterford £20 and Kilkenny £10 = Earl Ormond holds Arklow and three shires around it[406]

1580s: the seneschal of Wexford assumed the rights of two manors by a new lease to the loss of the incumbent tenant. The tenant appealed to the Irish Privy Council and recovered his property[407]

1584-99 circa: Sir Henry Wallop asks for enrolment of an indenture of temp Henry III between the Bishop of Ferns on the one part and Philip de Prendergast and Matilda de Guerney one the other part relating to land at Clone in Co. Wexford[408] = the New English recognised Wexford as the place where the Norman conquest began and so the Tudor re-conquest begins in Wexford = Wallop reaches back as far as he can go to re-begin the conquest

1586: the queen ordered that sheriffs and justices of the peace replace captains and seneschals wherever possible, and she proscribed the use of martial law by sheriffs[409]

1586: Henry Wallop acquired Sinnott interest in Enniscorthy manor & friary[410]

1588: Thomas Masterson seneschal of Wexford[411]

1592: the land between County Dublin and County Wexford is not yet shire ground[412]

1593: the Earl of Ormond owned Clonmines in Wexford[413] = granted in 1247 as part of the liberty of Kildare to Agatha Mortimer, daughter of Sibyl Marshal, wife of William Ferrers[414]

1593: Sir Richard Shee of Kilkenny granted to Edmund Butler Fitz Theobald of Kilkenny various properties of the Earl of Ormond across Kilkenny, Tipperary, Carlow, Waterford, Kildare, Dublin and the place known as Durbard Island or Great Island in Co. Wexford to have for 37 years with remainder to the Earl of Ormond and various branches of the Butler family[415]

1594: letters patent granting Dermot MacMorish Kavanagh various lands in north Wexford previously belonging to two other Kavanagh gentlemen who were attained[416]

1594-1603: the mountains between Carlow and Arklow hold rebel and pestering Irish[417]

1598: south Wexford described as the most civil part of the county = the vast majority of the 65 surviving tower houses in Wexford are in the baronies of Forth and Bargy with few in the north[418] = suggesting little Anglo-Irish occupation of north Wexford in the 16th century

1599: Donal Spainneach Kavanagh was in rebellion & he would come in if his land title was secured = seneschal of Wexford and others were to examine this title[419]

1601: Thomas, Earl of Ormond, ultimate owner of the manor of Great Island in Wexford agrees to transfer the manor from Robert Rothe and Henry Shee to Edward Gough, Richard Comerford and Patrick St. Leger[420] = 1602 the Great Island was part of the entailed lands of the late Earl of Ormond[421]

1602: officers of Wexford liberty = Richard Masterson, seneschal £20p.a., Philip Hoare, receiver £20p.a., and David Hoare, serjeant £20p.a.[422]

1603, March: Great Island in Wexford part of the feoffment of various Ormond properties across Kilkenny, Tipperary, Carlow, Kildare and Dublin given in trust to Sir Nicholas Walsh and others with remainder to the Earl of Ormond and various branches of the Butler family[423]

1603: Richard Masterson seneschal of the Wexford liberty[424]

1604: the following offices shall cease or death or resign of present holders = including offices of the Wexford liberty = seneschal £20 p.a., justice £20 p.a., receiver £20 p.a. and serjeant £20 p.a. = the lands are in the king’s hand and those belonging to the county palatine now cease[425] = there is no set end date of the liberty of Wexford = the liberty and the new county administration appears to have over lapped each other with the county gaining more power as each officer holder died or retired

1606: north Wexford was included in the new shire of Wexford[426]

1606: the royal writ rarely extended to north Wexford & Wicklow[427]

1606: king’s instructions to Lord Deputy Chichester include the cessation of all offices of the liberty of Wexford on the death of the present holders[428]

1608: Sir William Synnott surrendered his office of justice of the liberties of County Wexford & his fee of £20 p.a. to the crown & received £80 by return[429]

1608, July: grand panel of the County of Wexford = 30 JPs, 6 coroners, 2 constables to each of 8 baronies (7 baronies named – no Shelmalire), 3 towns with a portreeve & 221 gentlemen across 8 baronies[430] = the liberty of Wexford appears to have ended after 361 years

1611: Sir Henry Wallop granted the spiritualities of Selsker abbey and the manor and friary of Enniscorthy in common socage forever[431]

1612: doubts expressed that the 1535 act of absentee against Earl of Shrewsbury took away his Wexford property and the title of Earl of Waterford = in 1831 the then Earl of Shrewsbury said the act didn’t removed the earldom title[432]

1612-18: plantation of north Wexford gave 50% to New English, 14% to Old English and 36% to Irish owners[433]

1614: the fishermen on the Wexford coast receive a confirmation of their freedom from duty on herrings caught & on salt & beer imported from England[434]

1618: Kavanagh members granted property under the Wexford plantation = one, Art MacDermot Kavanagh gets land and the creation of a manor of Ballingarry[435]

1620-40: eleven New English planters compensate for planters who didn’t settle their lands and expand their north Wexford holdings and four persons take Irish holdings (reduced 36% to 27%) = Old English possessions also decline to gain of New English[436]

 


Medieval St. Mary's church, New Ross


Carlow/Wexford

1415, May: Appointment of Thomas Moyn, Patrick Coterell & Robert Dullard to inquire by oath in Cos. Kildare, Carlow, Wexford, Kilkenny, Waterford, Tipperary, Cork & Limerick, & in the crosslands of the same, concerning seditions, felonies, conspiracies against the peace; & concerning trespasses made upon the K.'s possessions within the counties & crosslands, with power to arrest[437]

1420, December: appointment of John Lumbard, […] Stafford, Robert Folyng, William […] & […] Baldewyne to inquire in Cos. Carlow, Wexford, & five other counties concerning treasons, felonies etc.; & concerning religious who have acquired possessions at Mortmain; & concerning labourers and false weights; & hold, hear & determine all contempts & pleas[438]

1421, January: appointment of Maurice Stafford, Robert Folyng, William fitz Gerald, Patrick Cotterell, John Chevyr, William Baldewyne & Stephen […] as justices to inquire in Cos. Carlow, Wexford, & six other counties, & the crosslands, concerning treasons [etc.], & concerning religious persons who may have acquired possessions at Mortmain[439]

1425, June: appointment of Robert Folynge, Maurice Stafford, John Sutton, Nicholas Dewrous, Walter Whitey & John Goghe as justices to inquire in Cos. Carlow, Wexford & five other counties & the crosslands of same, concerning treasons & all other trespasses[440]

1425-1427, February: Maurice Stafford & Robert Folyng pleaded they were occupied upon the King’s business from 21 June 1425 until 6 Feb. [1427] last concerning the above, sustaining great labours & costs, without reward. They sought reward = King granted £6 of his gift as a reward on March 1426 last, = exchequer say nothing paid = order to pay him those £6 or assign it in debts[441]

1458: act of parliament 36 Henry VI 5 chief sergeants in shires, liberties and franchises liable for returns[442]

1522: judicial commission sent to the counties of Carlow, Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, Limerick and Cork and the cross-lands of same[443]

1533: act of parliament 25 Henry VIII include abbey lands in Carlow and Wexford to be given to the king[444]

1539: Lord Deputy Grey heard legal cases in Carlow, Kilkenny, New Ross, Waterford, Wexford and Clonmel[445]

1566: a sheriff is needed in the civil parts of Dublin, Kilkenny, Carlow and Wexford to hear cases under common law and oyer and terminer[446]

1566: the list of impositions upon counties return £1,700 for Wexford and £1,200 for Carlow while the spoils for Wexford and Carlow amount to £1,300[447]

1566: in Kavanagh country, Murrough’s country, Mac Edmund Duff’s country Mac Davy Mor’s country and MacVadoug’s country lying partly in Counties Wexford and Carlow, Nicholas Heron, captain of Leighlin and Ferns, is appointed seneschal of Wexford = seneschals appointed to different parts of Dublin and Wicklow, where like Wexford, these areas to be govern by common law with Brehon law excluded[448]

1567: Counties Carlow and Wexford have, besides their sheriffs, Thomas Stukeley who is seneschal of Wexford and captain of Leighlinbridge[449] = Francis Cosby was seneschal of Laois = Henry Colley was seneschal of Offaly and both counties had sheriffs[450]

1568: the Earl of Kildare seeks restoration of his father’s estates = make surveys in Meath, Westmeath, Dublin, Kildare, Queen’s, King’s and Carlow to be restored = but the Earls claims in certain parts of Meath, Kildare and Wexford to be dismissed as the queen has better claims to title[451]

1568: Thomas Stukeley was constable of Wexford, Ferns and Leighlin until ordered remove by Sidney on the queen’s instructions = Sir Nicholas Heron offered these positions but died so offered to Nicholas White = if council of Munster established then lessen the charges on Leighlin[452]

1569: Nicholas White to have lease of Dunbrody abbey and the parsonage of Baltinglass along with properties in other counties[453]

1569: proposed bills in parliament to include the resumption of all franchises, liberties and jurisdictions to assemble, guide and govern, except the liberties of Tipperary and Kerry[454]

1569: Nicholas White has do a good job as constable of Leighlin and he proposes to declare martial law in Wexford to remove some rebels there[455]

1569: Earl of Ormond told to keep the junior Butler families in Carlow and Wexford under control[456]

1571: the Irish counties adjoining the Pale were lately made shire ground by act of parliament and are now in good obedience[457]

1572: the government had successfully extended its muster roll to include the Counties of King’s, Queen’s, Kilkenny, Carlow and Wexford[458]

1573: the government placed a cess of the Pale counties and on Carlow and Wexford to pay for the rebellion of the O’Connors[459]

1570s: Wexford contributed its requirements to cess but at only half what Louth could pay, yet it could provide victuals. Carlow and Tipperary provided less than Kilkenny and were poor on victuals because they had less cultivated land[460]

1579: the Gerrard report recommended that the chief justice of the common pleas should hear cases in Cos. Queen’s, Carlow, Kilkenny, Wexford, Waterford and Tipperary[461]

1586: Wexford and Carlow were included in the area subject to composition in lieu of cess which included the other counties of King’s, Queen’s, Tipperary, Kilkenny and the Pale[462]

1594: the Earl of Ormond allowed to execute martial law within the Pale which area was defined as including Dublin, Kildare, Queen’s, Carlow, Kilkenny, and Wexford[463]

1596: the Earl of Ormond made military commander in Counties Dublin, Kildare, Carlow, Kilkenny, King’s and Queen’s and Wexford[464]

1605: the Lord Chief Justice & the Chief Baron set the formal boundary between Carlow & Wexford which presently was uncertain thus allowing people to escape justice[465]

1617: the Earl of Arundel seeks recovery of ancestral estates in Ireland[466]

1633, May: King Charles instructs Lord Deputy Stafford to find an Irish estate for the Earl of Arundel[467]

1634: Walter Synnot and John Murffy attempt to recover the Earl of Kildare estate in County Wexford that is known and hidden[468]

1635: the Earl of Arundel desires to recover Carlow, Old Ross and Wexford as ancestral property[469]

 

Later Liberties

1617: the palatine liberty of Tipperary was abolished because Earl Ormond lost his court case against the friend of King James, Richard Preston[470]

1621: the palatine liberty of Tipperary was resumed by the crown[471]

1662: the palatine liberty of Tipperary was restored to James Butler, 12th Earl of Ormond and 1st Duke of Ormond and extended to cover the baronies of Arra and Owney and the cross lands of Tipperary[472]

1716: the palatine liberty of Tipperary was abolished by act of parliament because of the attainder of the 2nd Duke rather than any ideas of reforming local government[473]

1757: the archbishop of Dublin was unsuccessful at introducing a bill in parliament to abolish the liberty of St. Patrick located within the liberty of St. Sepulchre[474]

1856: the liberty of St. Sepulchre was abolished by act of parliament and its legal functions passed to such courts of law as would have enjoyed such authority if the liberty had not existed[475]

 

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[1] Thirty-fifth report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Dublin, 1903); Thirty-sixth report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Dublin, 1904); Thirty-eighth report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Dublin, 1906); Thirty-ninth report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Dublin, 1907); Forty-second report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Dublin, 1911); Forty-fourth report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Dublin, 1912)

[2] Mills, J. (ed.), Calendar of the justiciary rolls, Ireland, vol. 1, 1295-1303 (Dublin, 1905); Mills, J. (ed.), Calendar of the justiciary rolls, Ireland, vol. II, 1305-1307 (Dublin, 1914); Griffith, M.C. (ed.), Calendar of the justiciary rolls, Ireland, vol. III, 1308-1314 (Dublin, 1956)

[3] Leslie, Rev, J., Ferns Clergy and Parishes (Dublin, 1936)

[4] Orpen, GH., Ireland under the Normans, 1169-1333 (Dublin, 2005), Vol. III, pp. 79, 80

[5] Orpen, Ireland under the Normans, 1169-1333, Vol. III, pp. 81-85

[6] Orpen, Ireland under the Normans, 1169-1333, Vol. III, pp. 85-89

[7] Lydon, J., ‘The expansion and consolidation of the colony, 1215-54’, in Art Cosgrove (ed.), A new history of Ireland, volume II, Medieval Ireland, 1169-1534 (Oxford, 2008), pp. 156-178, at p. 173

[8] Colfer, B., Arrogant Trespass: Anglo-Norman Wexford 1169-1400 (Enniscorthy, 2002), p. 72

[9] Colfer, Arrogant Trespass: Anglo-Norman Wexford 1169-1400, p. 74, referring to Cal. Doc. Ire., 1, no. 2983

[10] Orpen, Ireland under the Normans, 1169-1333, Vol. III, p. 102; Sweetman, H.S. (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland (London, 1877, reprint Liechtenstein, 1974), vol. II (1252-1284), no. 1330

[11] The Complete Peerage (Gloucester, 1987), vol. IV, p. 199

[12] Sharp, J.E.E.S. (ed.), Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume IV, Edward 1 (London, 1913, reprint Liechtenstein, 1973), no. 373

[13] Brooks, Eric St. John, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century (Dublin, 1950), pp. 1, 2

[14] Colfer, B. ‘Anglo-Norman Settlement in Co. Wexford’, in Kevin Whelan & William Nolan (eds.), Wexford: History and Society, Interdisciplinary Essays on the History of an Irish County (Dublin, 1987), pp. 65-101, at p. 72

[15] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, p. 11

[16] Lydon, J., ‘A land of war’, in Art Cosgrove (ed.), A new history of Ireland, volume II, Medieval Ireland, 1169-1534 (Oxford, 2008), pp. 240-274, at p. 265

[17] Brewer, J.S., & Bullen, W. (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts persevered in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth (London, 1871, reprint Liechtenstein, 1974), Vol. 5, p. 232

[18] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, pp. 3, 4

[19] Dryburgh, P. & Smith, B. (eds.), Handbook and Select Calendar of Sources for Medieval Ireland in the National Archives of the United Kingdom (Dublin, 2005), p. 49

[20] Curtis, E. (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, 1172-1350 A.D. (Dublin, 1932), no. 529

[21] Connolly, P. (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446 (Dublin, 1998), p. 405

[22] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, p. 442

[23] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, pp. 460, 469

[24] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 393

[25] Dryburgh, P., & Smith, B., ‘Calendar of documents relating to medieval Ireland in the series of ancient deeds in the National Archives of the United Kingdom’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 39 (2006), pp. 1-61, at pp. 47, 48

[26] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, p. 36

[27] Wells-Furby, B. (ed.), A catalogue of the medieval muniments at Berkeley Castle (2 vols. Bristol & Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 2004), Vol. 2, p. 685, D1/1/27

[28] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 377

[29] Lydon, J., The Lordship of Ireland in the Middle Ages (Dublin, 2003), p. 92

[30] Dryburgh, & Smith, ‘Calendar of documents’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 39 (2006), pp. 1-61, at p. 34

[31] Connolly, P., ‘Irish material in the class of Ancient Petitions (SC8) in the Public Record Office, London’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 34 (1987), pp. 1-106, at p. 94

[33] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, p. 16

[34] Lydon, ‘A land of war’, pp. 240-274, at p. 260

[35] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 381, note c

[36] The Complete Peerage, vol. 1, p. 307

[37] The Complete Peerage, vol. XI, p. 699, note d

[38] Lydon, The Lordship of Ireland in the Middle Ages, p. 109

[39] Dryburgh & Smith (eds.), Handbook for Medieval Ireland in the National Archives, U.K., p. 72

[40] Dryburgh & Smith (eds.), Handbook for Medieval Ireland in the National Archives, U.K., pp. 70, 120

[43] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, p. 16

[44] Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, 1172-1350 A.D., no. 405

[45] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, pp. 383, 384

[46] Down, K., ‘Colonial society and economy’, in Art Cosgrove (ed.), A new history of Ireland, volume II, Medieval Ireland, 1169-1534 (Oxford, 2008), pp. 439-491, at p. 475

[47] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, p. 21

[48] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, p. 32

[49] Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, 1172-1350 A.D., no. 478

[50] Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, 1172-1350 A.D., no. 529

[51] Curtis, E. (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, volume III, 1413-1509 A.D. (Dublin, 1935), pp. 1, 2

[52] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 386

[53] Brewer, J.S., & Bullen, W. (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts persevered in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth (London, 1871, reprint Liechtenstein, 1974), Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 2

[54] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, pp. 386, 387

[55] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, p. 36

[56] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, p. 93

[57] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 388

[58] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 388

[59] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, p. 93

[60] The Complete Peerage, vol. XII/I, p. 614

[61] The Complete Peerage, vol. 1, p. 307

[62] The Complete Peerage, vol. 1, p. 307

[63] Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, 1172-1350 A.D., no. 622

[64] Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, 1172-1350 A.D., no. 614

[65] Connolly, ‘Irish material in the class of Ancient Petitions (SC8)’, pp. 1-106, at p. 76

[66] Lydon, The Lordship of Ireland in the Middle Ages, p. 133

[67] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, pp. 623, 624

[68] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, pp. 378, 379

[69] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, p. 385

[70] Connolly, P., ‘Irish material in the class of Chancery warrants series 1 (C81) in the Public Record Office, London’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 36 (1995), pp. 135-161, at p. 152

[71] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, p. 391

[72] Calendar Close Rolls, Edward III, 1337-9, p. 506

[73] Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, 1172-1350 A.D., no. 714

[74] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 389

[75] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 389

[76] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 389

[77] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, pp. 403, 425

[78] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 390

[79] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 389

[80] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, p. 476

[81] Otway-Ruthven, O.J., A history of Medieval Ireland (London, 1980), p. 278

[82] https://chancery.tcd.ie/document/patent/29-edward-iii/53 (accessed on 12th November 2021), Frame, R., ‘Commissions of the peace in Ireland, 1302-1461’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 35 (1992), pp. 1-43, at pp. 32-34

[83] https://chancery.tcd.ie/document/patent/29-edward-iii/69; https://chancery.tcd.ie/document/patent/29-edward-iii/70; https://chancery.tcd.ie/document/patent/49-edward-iii/278 (accessed on 12th November 2021) gives a lengthily list of the actions and expectations of the keepers of the peace in 1375 Wexford 

[85] The Complete Peerage, vol. 1, p. 308

[86] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, p. 482

[87] RCH, p. 68 no. 29; p. 77 no. 31

[88] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 393

[89] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 392

[91] Connolly, ‘Irish material in the class of Ancient Petitions (SC8)’, pp. 1-106, at p. 52

[92] Curtis, E. (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, volume II, 1350-14133 A.D. (Dublin, 1934), p. 108

[93] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 393

[94] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 392

[95] The Complete Peerage, vol. 1, p. 307

[97] The Complete Peerage, vol. 1, p. 308

[98] The Complete Peerage, vol. 1, p. 309

[99] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, p. 530

[100] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 394

[101] The Complete Peerage, vol. XII/I, p. 614

[107] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 393

[109] Richardson, H.G. & Sayles, G.O. (eds.), Parliaments and Councils of Mediaeval Ireland, volume 1 (Dublin, 1947), p. 56

[110] MacCotter, P. Medieval Ireland: Territorial, Political and Economic Divisions (Dublin, 2008), p. 249

[111] Richardson & Sayles (eds.), Parliaments and Councils of Mediaeval Ireland, volume 1, p. 58

[118] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, pp. 394, 395

[119] Connolly, ‘Irish material in the class of Ancient Petitions (SC8)’, pp. 1-106, at p. 64

[125] Dawes, M.C.B., Devine, M.R., Jones, H.E. & Post, M.J. (eds.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume 16, Richard II (London, 1974), no. 62

[127] Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, volume II, 1350-14133 A.D., p. 151

[143] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, pp. 395, 396

[146] Goff, H., ‘English conquest of an Irish barony. The changing patterns of land ownership in the barony of Scarawalsh, 1540-1640’, in Kevin Whelan & William Nolan (eds.), Wexford: History and Society, Interdisciplinary Essays on the History of an Irish County (Dublin, 1987), pp. 122-149, at p. 123

[149] Mac Niocaill, G. (ed.), The Red Book of the Earls of Kildare (Dublin, 1964), No. 149

[150] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 396

[166] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 395

[170] The Complete Peerage, vol. XII/I, p. 614

[173] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 395, note j

[174] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 396

[175] The Complete Peerage, vol. X, p. 397

[176] Curtis, E., A history of Medieval Ireland from 1086 to 1513 (New York, 1968), p. 385

[184] Goff, ‘English conquest of an Irish barony’, pp. 122-149, at p. 123

[185] Goff, ‘English conquest of an Irish barony’, pp. 122-149, at p. 137

[186] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, pp. 6, 7

[188] National Archives of Ireland, 999/275/53

[200] Connolly, ‘Irish material in the class of Ancient Petitions (SC8)’, pp. 1-106, at p. 63

[202] Otway-Ruthven, A history of Medieval Ireland, p. 342

[229] Otway-Ruthven, A history of Medieval Ireland, p. 348

[234]Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, volume III, 1413-1509 A.D., p. 12

[243] Richardson & Sayles (eds.), Parliaments and Councils of Mediaeval Ireland, volume 1, p. 168

[250] https://chancery.tcd.ie/document/patent/9-henry-v/30  (accessed on 12th November 2021)

[266] https://chancery.tcd.ie/document/patent/3-henry-vi/117 (accessed on 12th November 2021); Otway-Ruthven, A history of Medieval Ireland, p. 364;

[271] Dryburgh & Smith (eds.), Handbook for Medieval Ireland in the National Archives, U.K., p. 192

[276] Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments, 1270-1446, pp. 569, 581

[285] Dryburgh & Smith (eds.), Handbook for Medieval Ireland in the National Archives, U.K., p. 223

[286] The Complete Peerage, vol. XI, p. 699, note d

[290] Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, volume III, 1413-1509 A.D., pp. 173-175

[291] Cunningham, B. (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1566-1567 (Dublin, 2009), no. 117, p. 65

[292] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1566-1567, no. 117, p. 61

[293] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1566-1567, no. 117, p. 63

[294] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1566-1567, no. 117, p. 64

[295] Quinn, D.B., ‘The hegemony of the Earls of Kildare, 1494-1520’, in Art Cosgrove (ed.), A new history of Ireland, volume II, Medieval Ireland, 1169-1534 (Oxford, 2008), pp. 638-661, at p. 644

[296] Quinn, ‘The hegemony of the Earls of Kildare, 1494-1520’, pp. 638-661, at p. 650

[297] Donovan, B., & Edwards, D. (eds.), British sources for Irish History 1485-1641 (Dublin, 1997), p. 17

[298] Ellis, S.G. & Murray, J. (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547 (Dublin, 2017), no. 3

[299] Fitzsimons, F., ‘Wolsey, the native affinities, and the failure of reform in Henrician Ireland’, in David Edwards (ed.), Regions and Rulers in Ireland, 1100-1650: Essays for Kenneth Nicholls (Dublin, 2004), pp. 78-121, at p. 93; Donovan & Edwards (eds.), British sources for Irish History 1485-1641, p. 69

[300] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 6

[301] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 8

[302] Mac Niocaill, G. (ed.), Crown Surveys of Lands 1540-41 with the Kildare rental begun in 1518 (Dublin, 1992), pp. 307, 308

[303] Fitzsimons, ‘Wolsey, the native affinities, & the failure of reform in Henrician Ireland’, pp. 78-121, at p. 93

[304] Fitzsimons, ‘Wolsey, the native affinities, & the failure of reform in Henrician Ireland’, pp. 78-121, at p. 93

[305] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 22

[306] Fitzsimons, ‘Wolsey, the native affinities, & the failure of reform in Henrician Ireland’, pp. 78-121, at p. 93

[307] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 29

[308] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 35

[309] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 80

[310] Edwards, D. & Empey, A., ‘Tipperary liberty ordinances of the ‘Black’ earl of Ormond’, in David Edwards (ed.), Regions and Rulers in Ireland, 1100-1650: Essays for Kenneth Nicholls (Dublin, 2004), pp. 122-145, at p. 124

[311] Donovan & Edwards (eds.), British sources for Irish History 1485-1641, p. 69

[312] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), pp. 62, 85

[313] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 112

[314] Mac Niocaill (ed.), Crown Surveys of Lands 1540-41, pp. 11-14

[315] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, pp. 6, 7

[316] Mac Niocaill (ed.), Crown Surveys of Lands 1540-41, pp. 15-18

[317] Brooks, Knights’ fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th Century, p. 22

[318] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 325

[319] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1566-1567, no. 117, p. 58

[320] Connolly, P. (ed.), Statute rolls of the Irish Parliament: Richard III-Henry VIII (Dublin, 2002), pp. 226-7, 277-8

[321] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 149

[322] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 95

[323] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 205

[324] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 98

[325] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 90

[326] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), pp. 114, 115

[327] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 116

[328] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 266

[329] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 269

[330] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, nos. 279, 281

[331] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 308

[332] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), pp. 128, 129; Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, nos. 321, 321.1

[333] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 336.1

[334] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 319.5, printed by Hore & Graves in Southern & Eastern Counties, pp. 48-61

[335] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 319.6, printed by Hore & Graves in Southern & Eastern Counties, pp. 45-7

[336] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 319.7, printed by Hore & Graves in Southern & Eastern Counties, pp. 39-45

[337] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 319.8, printed by Hore & Graves in Southern & Eastern Counties, pp. 62-76

[338] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 132

[339] Clarke, A., & McGrath, B. (eds.), Letterbook of George, 16th Earl of Kildare (Dublin, 2013), pp. 131, 132, 133

[340] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 120

[341] Heffernan, D. (ed.), ‘Reform’ Treatises on Tudor Ireland (Dublin, 2016), p. 28, note 68

[342] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 245

[343] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 340

[344] Gairdner, J., & Brodie, R.H. (eds.), Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 13, Part 1, January-July 1538 (London, 1898), p. 33, no. 97; Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 349

[345] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 423

[346] Goff, ‘English conquest of an Irish barony’, pp. 122-149, at p. 125

[347] Gairdner, J., & Brodie, R.H. (eds.), Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 14, Part 2, August-December 1539 (London, 1895), p. 6

[348] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 472

[349] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 477

[350] Gairdner & Brodie (eds.), Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, Volume 14, Part 2, August-December 1539, p. 15; Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 475

[351] Gairdner & Brodie (eds.), Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, Volume 14, Part 2, August-December 1539, p. 41

[352] Goff, ‘English conquest of an Irish barony’, pp. 122-149, at p. 124

[353] Gairdner, J., & Brodie, R.H. (eds.), Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 16, 1540-1541(London, 1898), p. 375

[354] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 202

[355] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 614

[356] Goff, ‘English conquest of an Irish barony’, pp. 122-149, at p. 129

[357] Crawford, J., Anglicizing the Government of Ireland: The Irish Privy Council and the expansion of Tudor rule, 1556-1578 (Blackrock, 1993), p. 107

[358] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, no. 728

[359] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 223

[360] Ellis & Murray (eds.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1509-1547, p. 423

[361] Crawford, Anglicizing the Government of Ireland, 1556-1578, pp. 165, 441

[362] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 236

[363] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1566-1567, no. 79.1

[364] Heffernan (ed.), ‘Reform’ Treatises on Tudor Ireland, pp. 21, 22

[365] Heffernan (ed.), ‘Reform’ Treatises on Tudor Ireland, p. 33

[366] Heffernan (ed.), ‘Reform’ Treatises on Tudor Ireland, pp. 43, 44, 47

[367] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 337

[368] Crawford, Anglicizing the Government of Ireland, 1556-1578, p. 298

[369] Cunningham, B. (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571 (Dublin, 2010), no. 98

[370] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1566-1567, no. 324

[371] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1566-1567, no. 79

[372] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1566-1567, no. 238

[373] √ď Laidhin, T. (ed.), Sidney State Papers, 1565-70 (Dublin, 1962), no. 55 (2); Carey, V.P., Surviving the Tudors: The ‘Wizard’ Earl of Kildare and English Rule in Ireland, 1537-1586 (Dublin, 2002), p. 224

[374] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 98

[375] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 141

[376] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, nos. 200, 200.1, 207.1

[377] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 241

[378] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 286

[379] Heffernan (ed.), ‘Reform’ Treatises on Tudor Ireland, pp. 57, 58

[380] Heffernan (ed.), ‘Reform’ Treatises on Tudor Ireland, p. 150

[381] O’Dowd, M. (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1571-1575 (London & Dublin, 2000), no. 22

[382] Crawford, Anglicizing the Government of Ireland, 1556-1578, p. 470

[383] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 349

[384] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 393

[385] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 394

[386] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 317

[387] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 476

[388] Quinn, D., ‘Government printing and the publication of the Irish Statutes in the Sixteenth Century’, in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Volume XLIX, Section C, No. 2 (1943), pp. 45-129, at p. 120; Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 354

[389] Heffernan (ed.), ‘Reform’ Treatises on Tudor Ireland, p. 63

[390] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 533

[391] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 529

[392] Cunningham (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1568-1571, no. 607

[393] O’Dowd (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1571-1575, no. 145

[394] O’Dowd (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1571-1575, no. 130

[395] O’Dowd (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1571-1575, no. 127

[396]Rigg, J.M. (ed.), Calendar of State Papers relating to English affairs in the Vatican Archives, Volume 1, 1558-1571 (London, 1915), no. 750

[397] O’Dowd (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1571-1575, no. 285

[398] O’Dowd (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1571-1575, no. 281

[399] O’Dowd (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1571-1575, no. 258

[400] O’Dowd (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Tudor Period, 1571-1575, no. 280

[401] Brewer & Bullen (eds.), Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, Vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 422

[402] Goff, ‘English conquest of an Irish barony’, pp. 122-149, at p. 129

[403] Donovan & Edwards (eds.), British sources for Irish History 1485-1641, p. 195

[404] Heffernan (ed.), ‘Reform’ Treatises on Tudor Ireland, p. 90

[405] Crawford, Anglicizing the Government of Ireland, 1556-1578, p. 165

[406] Heffernan (ed.), ‘Reform’ Treatises on Tudor Ireland, pp. 166, 170, 171

[407] Crawford, Anglicizing the Government of Ireland, 1556-1578, p. 196, with reference on p. 197, note 86 to RIA, MS 24 F 17, ff. 70v-71v

[408] Donovan & Edwards (eds.), British sources for Irish History 1485-1641, p. 80

[409] Crawford, Anglicizing the Government of Ireland, 1556-1578, p. 206, note 123, BL, Add. MS 4,786, ff. 37-38

[410] Goff, ‘English conquest of an Irish barony’, pp. 122-149, at p. 131

[411] Hamilton, H.C. (ed.), Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, 1586-1588 (London, 1877)

[412] Heffernan (ed.), ‘Reform’ Treatises on Tudor Ireland, p. 303

[413] Curtis, E. (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, Volume VI, 1584-1603 A.D. (Dublin, 1943), p. 62

[414] Orpen, Ireland under the Normans, 1169-1333, Vol. III, pp. 97, 102

[415] Curtis (ed.), Calendar of Ormond Deeds, Volume VI, 1584-1603 A.D., p. 59

[416] Donovan & Edwards (eds.), British sources for Irish History 1485-1641, p. 209