Monday, April 12, 2021

Sheanmore Castle and Manor: a brief history


Sheanmore Castle and Manor:

 a brief history


Niall C.E.J. O’Brien


   Sheanmore tower house/castle lies in the townland of Sheanmore in the civil parish of Lismore and Mocollop at the western bounds of County Waterford near the boundary with County Cork. Sheanmore castle stands today, alone in the corner of a north facing field and outside the bounds of the catholic parish of Ballyduff, it once was actively part of. The building extended higher the than two stories now existing, possibly up to four stories. It stood in a bailey, surrounded a by wall. Within this bailey were other (timber) buildings like stables, barns, homes along with a forge and a kitchen. The two latter were kept apart from the others because of fire precautions. 

   The castle was the big house at the centre of a large agricultural manor, which stretched from the ridge just south of the castle to the Araglin River in the north. With its western neighbouring manor of Mocollop, it formed the civil parish of Mocollop. The manor of Sheanmore is first mentioned in 1420 when James Fitzgerald, the 7th earl of Desmond, was found to be Seneschal of Imokilly, Inchiquin and Youghal, as well as being Lord of Mogeely, Lisfinny, Mocollop, Aghern, Tallow, and Shean.[1] In that year James’s nephew, Thomas FitzJohn the 6th earl died in Paris, leaving a son who should have been earl but James usurped the title. It was only in 1422 that James got official recognition of his earldom.

   The early history of Sheanmore is unclear due to lack of surviving documentation. Because it formed the civil parish of Mocollop with Mocollop, it is possible that it was once part of Mocollop manor. The Barry family of Castlelyons had acquired Mocollop by 1300, while the Fitzgerald family owned the large honour of Dungarvan, which extended from Kilmacthomas to the bounds of Mocollop. In the wars between the Roche and Condon families of north Cork, the Fitzgeralds aided Barry of Castlelyons. It is possible that in reward for such aid that Barry gave the Shean side of Mocollop manor to Maurice Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, first earl of Desmond. In return, Maurice got the Condons to transfer Inchinleamy to Mocollop. Inchinleamy always formed part of Leitrim civil parish yet the Fitzgeralds of Mocollop owned it in the 1640 Civil Survey. The later sixteen century expansion of the Condons along the south bank of the Blackwater, and into former Mocollop territory maybe an effort to correct a wrong previously done.

   The Fitzgeralds proceeded to create Sheanmore into a separate manor. A rectangular, stone, hall-house type structure is likely to have being constructed during the manor formation, near or at the present castle site. This location would allow it to observe most of the estate. The manor was divided into five divisions, namely: lands held in demesne by the lord, land of free tenants, tenants-at-will, cottagers and betaghs land or unfree Irish commoners. Free tenants usually held one or more townlands and had their own tenants under them. These tenants paid money as rent or in kind, by providing food to the castle or giving so many days service on the demesne lands every year as the cottager mostly did. This mention of organisation was the usual in other manors and is likely to have also occurred here. Lack of documentation prevents us from knowing precisely how things worked on the Sheanmore manor.

   Much of the land south of the Blackwater and some distance up the hills, behind St Michael’s Hall was used for arable farming intermixed with pasture and meadowland. Income came from renting out this land or farming it and selling the produce. The manor had its own corn mill which generated income for the lord and all tenants had to take their corn there. Further income came from the manor court which settled land disputes among the tenants and processed minor criminal cases.

   As we move into the 1460s our knowledge becomes clearer. Thomas Fitzgerald, son of James and eight earl of Desmond, had five sons by his wife, Alice Barry. The first four became respectively 9th, 10th, 12th and 13th earls of Desmond. To the fifth son, Gerald Oge, Thomas made him Lord of Coshmore and Coshbride. This new lordship, based at Mocollop included Shean, Aghern, Mogeely, Lisfinny, Strancally and the land south to Youghal.[2] It is possible that Gerald Oge built Sheanmore Castle as a link between Mocollop on the Blackwater and Mogeely on the Bride.


Sheanmore tower house as seen from the north-west (author photo)


   The location had an important defensive job at preventing the eastward expansion of the Condon family of Kilworth. By the mid 1500’s the Condons had advanced along the Blackwater on the south bank from Clondalane, taking the townlands of Kilbarry, Ballydorgan, Ballynaglass (Waterpark), Garrynagoul and Kilcoran. When the county boundary between Cork and Waterford was been drawn in Elizabeth’s time; the Condons kept their land in Cork while the Fitzgeralds of Sheanmore kept theirs in Waterford and hence the curving nature of today’s border as it reflects the property ownership of the 1570’s.

   When Gerald Oge died in 1520 he left four sons; James the eldest got Mocollop, Maurice the second son got Sheanmore, while Thomas the next son got Kilmacow. The last son, John, got Strancally and Lisfinny but when he died in 1550 leaving a twelve year old son, the 15th earl of Desmond seized the two manors and carried young Thomas into prison where he died in 1554.[3]

   Maurice settled into his manor of Sheanmore, got married and had children. He also connected himself with some of the great local families. His daughter, Ellis married James FitzJohn Barry who was 16th Lord Barrymore. The couple had no issue, but James remarried to have a daughter who became wife of Richard Power, 4th Lord Curraghmore.[4] But Maurice and his relations were living in the twilight of their time.

   When the 15th earl of Desmond went to Dromana in 1565 to get Maurice Fitzgerald (Lord Decies), to acknowledge him as overlord, few could see the consequences of this act of estate management. Maurice instead of paying his rent, called his friend the earl of Ormond and the Battle of Affane occurred. Desmond lost and was sent to the Tower of London where he spent many years of confinement. Court officials including Elizabeth herself saw Gerald’s removal as an opportunity to extend royal control into Munster and gain some new estates for the court favourites. A pardon was given to Maurice Fitzgerald of Shian and his son James in May 1567.[5] This could be for their support of Earl of Desmond at Affane.

   Ancient grants of land were revived through people like Sir Peter Carew of Devon. The first Munster plantation saw settlers arrive at ports such as Youghal and stake their claim to various parts of the province in 1568-69. This caused concern and fear among the existing Old English society in Munster as their privileges and lands came under threat. The earl’s cousin, James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald organised a revolt and began the first Desmond war. Maurice of Shean and his nephew, Maurice of Mocollop, fought along side Fitzmaurice. But Thomas Roe Fitzgerald of Conna, elder half brother of the 15th earl, took the English side in the hope of recovering the earldom for himself.

   When the earl of Ormond advanced on the Blackwater valley in April 1571 to take Mocollop, Thomas Roe gave assistance. After the successful capture of Mocollop, Ormond helped Thomas sack Sheanmore when the whole castle complex was burnt.[6] The President of Munster gave reason for burning the castle that ‘he had no store of victual to leave men there.’[7]   


The bartizans on Sheanmore tower house


   Yet Maurice still stayed fighting for Desmond until they were defeated in 1574. He then returned home to rebuild his castle and manor. The manor was provisionally expanded at this time because Maurice held stewardship of the villages of Bridane, Ballyforge and White’s Town. These were properties of his brother, the late James of Mocollop and were let to James’s wife by the earl of Desmond.[8] But it wasn’t until February 1577 that Maurice got a pardon for his activity and got secure title to his own lands. The pardon mentions Maurice but we also get the names of some husbandmen of Sheanmore manor of which some could still have descendants in the area today. They were Maurice O’Connell, Dermot O’Craty, Donogh m’Dermod Iuaghiren, Donaugh m’David O’Leyn, Donald m’Shian O’Donorty, Maurice Roche fitzPhilip FitzGibbon, Thady m’Donougho M’Willelowe and David Troye.[9]

   The end of war didn’t bring the start of peace. Fitzmaurice kept up a guerrilla campaign until his death in August 1579, when John of Desmond and brother of the earl, continued the fight. The Fitzgeralds of Sheanmore kept away from Fitzmaurice’s campaign and Maurice’s son James would not join his kinsman without the earl of Desmond’s consent, which didn’t come nor was it encouraged.[10] The new settlers were putting pressure on London to bring peace and so London told the earl to arrest the rebels or join them. He joined them in November 1579 and attacked Youghal as it was the main port of the settlers.

   The second Desmond war proved an intense affair with mass slaughter of people and animals on both sides. Many of Desmond’s castles fell in early 1580 like Carrigfoyle, Askeaton, Newcastle and Rathkeale. During this period that the English advanced Maurice Fitzgerald of Shean threw off his neutral stance and assembling his troops at the town of Shean, he joined his chief. We do not know of Maurice’s military activity, but static defence at home was not one of his most successful exploits. Shortly after joining the rebellion, the Earl of Ormond invaded Coshbride where he sacked and burnt Sheanmore castle again.[11] The manor can not have been a productive place following this, with all the young men gone to fight or dead by the castle walls and many of the animals eaten for food.

   At these dark times a young courtier got 42,000 acres of Desmond’s land from Youghal to Mocollop including Shean its castle and manor. This happy individual can only have been Sir Walter Raleigh, bringer of tobacco and the potato to Europe. The grant remained unusable until the war ended with Desmond’s death in 1583. Surveyors mapped out the various lands during the spring of 1584 and Maurice had his lands formally forfeited. He lost them for being on the losing side, but also because he was only a tenant of the earl by paying chief rent to Desmond. Some say that Maurice was not attained until 1586 but it little mattered. He had supported his chief and went down with the sinking ship.

   In March 1583 the lands of Sheanmore, Lisfinny, Tallow, Scart and other places were given to Richard Shee and Robert Rothe of Kilkenny for three years.[12] These men were the principle advisers and land agents for the earl of Ormond, who arranged for this transaction by way of reward for services rendered.

   When an inquest into the lands held by the late earl of Desmond took place at Dungarvan in 1586, Maurice Fitzgerald of Sheanmore is described as been lately dead.[13] He left a son, James, who lived in the Glenbeg/Coolisheal area with his wife Honor Fitzgerald. She was the daughter of Edmond Fitzjames Fitzgerald, Dean of Cloyne, who had three wives and arranged that one of his sons, John, got elected Dean of Cloyne in succession to the father.[14] The canon law of having a celibate priesthood was little supported in medieval Ireland.

   In February 1587 Sir Walter Raleigh got possession of Sheanmore castle, its town and lands. An important element in the new plantation grants were that the Irish should be expelled and new English settlers planted in their place. Much the same idea Cromwell had eighty years later and ended the same way too, with the principle Irish removed but the bulk of the people kept because too few came from England to work the land. Yet Sir Walter brought a whole myriad of settlers and leased various parts of his estate.

   Thomas Colthurst got a lease on 8 September 1589 for the castle, manor and land of Shane (Sheanmore), including a tenement in Lismore town.[15] He kept the property for some years and then gave the lease to a Mr. Duff, or Duff became a tenant of Colthurst. The lack of clear documentation makes a definite statement impossible.

   By 1597 James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald had died leaving his lands at Glenbeg and Coolisheal to his son Gerald. In that year Gerald sold timber from Coolisheal to Henry Pyne of Mogeely. Henry was another of Raleigh’s new settlers, and got lease of Mogeely manor, south of Sheanmore in 1592. In the same year he also got the lands of Ballynaglass (Waterpark) and Ballydorgan from Patrick Condon of Kilworth because he gave Patrick a mortgage of three hundred pounds.[16] Henry built a saw mill at Mogeely to exploit the vast timber resources of his estates, principally to make pipe staves for barrel manufacture.

   The agreement between Gerald Fitzjames and Henry Pyne allowed Henry to cut and carry away timber from Coolisheal during the two year period of 1597-99, for twenty pounds.[17] The vast quantity of timber at Coolisheal is seen in 1641 when the woods were valued at five hundred pounds and this after forty years of cutting for pipe staves and charcoal for Richard Boyle’s iron works.[18]

   The business of commerce all went well until September 1598 when Gerald joined the rebellion of James Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, son of Thomas Roe of Conna and known as the “Sugan Earl”. Gerald became Marshall of the Sugan’s armies. Certainly with a rebellion of such local origins, Gerald would be quiet prominent. Gerald used his position to regain his ancestral lands. He attacked Henry Pyne’s workers at Coolisheal and killed 26.[19] He also captured Sheanmore castle from Mr. Duff and made it his home again. This Munster rebellion was part of the wider rebellion of Hugh O’Neill in Ulster. Many of the new English settlers were driven from their homes and sent to the ports or killed.

   The war went well until Kinsale and then it got progressively worst for the Irish. The Sugan Earl was captured by the White Knight in May 1601 and taken to London where he died in 1608. The Mocollop Fitzgerald’s, who were involved in the war, got a pardon in January 1601. Gerald of Sheanmore had to wait for his protection. The Lord Justice, Sir George Carew early in 1600 offered some rebels in Munster protection from forfeiture, in the hope of dividing the Irish. Carew wrote to London that Garret (Gerald) Fitzjames Fitzgerald must surrender Sheanmore castle before he can get protection.[20] But Gerald didn’t bother surrendering at that time.


Ground floor plan of Sheanmore tower house from David A. Whelan, The Castle and Manor of Mocollop, Co. Waterford (U.C.D. thesis, 2005), fig. 25, plan 4


   By March 1601 with the war all but lost, Gerald gave up his home and got a pardon. He returned to live in the Glenbeg/Coolisheal area and resumed his estate business. The demand for pipe staves was still strong and Gerald sold Coolisheal timber to all who wished to pay. Henry Pyne didn’t see pleasure in this. He filled a bill at the Court of Chancery after 1603 claiming loses for the processed timber he paid for, the workers that were killed, the unfinished period of his lease and that Gerald was breaking this agreement by selling timber to others. The findings of the court do not appear to have survived but it is likely that Pyne won damages.[21] 

   Around this time of 1602 Sir Walter Raleigh sold his entire Irish property portfolio to Richard Boyle which included Sheanmore castle, its town and two carucates of land. An inquest into Raleigh’s Irish property in 1604 found that a burgage plot in Lismore held by John O’Feighe formed part of the manor.[22] In January 1611-12, Garret FitzJames of Culyshell (Coolisheal) helped Richard Boyle in defining the border between Coolisheal and Ballygallan.[23] In September 1617, Gerald was on a jury of seventeen people who made enquires about Waterford Corporation and what officials of same didn’t take the oath of supremacy. Only people who took the oath could serve as public officials and so most Catholics lost their jobs at that time. Most of the seventeen jurymen were Protestants and it is assumed that as his son was still Catholic in the Civil Survey so Gerald maintained the old religion.[24] A few years later Gerald died leaving two sons; John, his successor, and James.

   When Gerald vacated Sheanmore, Richard Boyle leased it and Ballyduff to Cornett Taaffe and his wife Ellis in 1605 for fifty one years. Taaffe built an English house on the property and lived there for some years but was dead by 1611.[25] Ellis then managed the property for some years. Gerald’s son John Fitzgerald saw a chance to get back to Sheanmore and married Ellis. Before the marriage, Ellis had given the land to Boyle and Sir Thomas Browne, her nephews, in trust [Browne was a grand nephew-in-law of Boyle – the actual connection of Ellis has not yet being established]. Disagreements soon occurred. Ellis had rented Ballygomeasigh (Marston), from Boyle for twenty one years at £10 rent. In March 1626, Boyle had their cattle driven off Ballygomeasigh and made their life miserable on the rest of the property. John and Ellis filed a petition to the English Privy Council for the lands of Shean and Ballyduff to be restored to them. London referred the case to the Irish Commission of Causes and they referred it to the Irish Lord Chancellor, who was supposed to decide the matter and if he didn’t, the Irish Court of Chancery were to do so. In the end none of these bodies gave favourable judgement and Lord Cork got full title to Shean/Ballyduff while the Fitzgeralds returned to Glenbeg being much the poorer for all their legal fees.[26]

   Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, has been acclaimed by many for the major improvements he made all over his Irish lands. For him to see a manor like Sheanmore, barren and unproductive was an anathema. By the late 1620’s he decided to put this right. In Richard’s diary for 1 May 1627 he writes of an agreement with his carpenter to build a fortified house on the manor;

                                               ‘I agreed with Andrew Tucker, my carpenter, to build me a new castle at the Blackwater side upon my lands of Ballyduff belonging to the Shane. To be 43’ long within the walls, 25’ broad and 35’ high as by the plot thereof and of indentures appeareth for which and the absolute finishing thereof, I am to pay him in money 152pounds 51shillings and ten pence sterling. To find him all materials, to give him half a ton of bass iron and to lend him if he desire them the working of six draught oxen to be warranted and restored by him when the building is finished, which he is bound to finish by Christmas Day next.’[27]

   This is the old house on Clancy’s farm. It is highly likely that the upper story of Sheanmore castle was taken down at this time as a quick quarry for building stone. Andrew Tucker worked many times for the earl and is mentioned in the diaries in October 1636 presenting his lordship with a model of another new house.

   The Civil Survey, written in 1654, records the land owners of 1640 in the Shean and Ballyduff district. The manor was bounded on the east by Coolydoody, Glenbeg and Coolisheal; on the south by Glentoir; on the west by Ballyjames and Mocollop and on the north by the Araglen River. This part of the old manor was owned by the earl of Cork and leased by Thomas Jackson, who lived in the fortified house at Ballyduff. This gentleman was the ancestor of the Jackson family of Glenbeg House, who held interests in the locality until the 1840s. The Shean/Ballyduff area contained 1,000 acres of which 20 was meadow land valued at ten pounds and 580 acres arable ground worth eighty pounds. There was also 400 acres of mountain land with a value of five pounds. The old castle of the Fitzgeralds was in a ruinous state at this time.

   On the other part of the old Sheanmore manor lived James Fitzgerald. John Fitzgerald appears to have died by then and his brother had succeeded. Here he had one ploughland covering Glenbeg/Coolisheal and lived on the Coolisheal side. The acreage was 750 of which 15 been meadow (value £7 10s), 235 arable (£30), 150 of wood (£7 10s) and 350 acres of mountain (£5) with a total valuation of £50. The surveyors also noted that up to £500 worth of timber and wood grew upon the so called unprofitable lands.[28]

   In the so called ‘Census of 1659’ (instead a poll tax abstract of 1660), only six tax payers lived in the old, and now declined, manor core at Sheanmore, composed of two English and four Irish. Ballyduff (south of the river) had 34 tax payers of which six were English with the principle persons been Thomas Jackson and William Jackson. Most people lived in the two divisions north of the river, namely: Ballyduff (38) and Coolisheal (48). Thus we have 126 tax payers in Sheanmore manor. The neighbouring manor of Mocollop had 181 taxpayers.[29]

   After the Irish lost the Confederate war, Cromwell implemented the previous decision of the English Parliament, made in the early 1640’s, to pay the soldiers and repaid their financial sponsors with Irish lands. One of these supporters, who were called adventurers, was William Gibbs. William operated a merchant business in London and had purchased the manor of Scrope, Suffolk, in 1639 from Jerome, son of the earl of Portland. In the distribution of Irish lands, William got the two townlands owned by James Fitzgerald. There were 539 acres of profitable land in Coolisheal and 1,781 acres of mountain. At Glenbeg, called Islandbeg in the distribution survey, there was 145 acres.[30] The acreage of both townlands was up on that recorded for 1640 but the unit of land value in those times, the ploughland was down. In 1640, James Fitzgerald owned two ploughlands but by 1656 he only had a half ploughland in each townland. This decline was due to the recent war which saw much fighting along the Blackwater valley and much destruction of farm land.

   James Fitzgerald and his family had to leave the land of his ancestors. Where he ended up, and what became of his family, is unknown. But William Gibbs didn’t wait long in following James. He sold the lease on both lands in 1658 to Thomas Jackson who now came to possess all the old manor of Sheanmore.[31]

   The Jackson family began to lose some parts of the old manor in the early eighteenth century. Christopher Musgrave, of Salterbridge and later of Tourin, acquired from Sheanmore tower house to Ballyduff Bridge. George Jackson of Glenbeg had married Susanna Bennett around 1780 and the family began to move their interests to the Great Island, near Cork and thus Thomas Foley held Glenbeg by 1850. In 1820, Arthur Ussher purchased Coolisheal from George Holmes Jackson. By 1850, Nelson Foley owned Flower Hill, Garra East, Knockadullaun and Ahaun, purchased again from the Jacksons. The rest of old Coolisheal, from Ballyduff village to the Araglen River was owned by the cousins, George and Benjamin Wood, and brought from the Jacksons.[32] By 1880, Andrew Wood came to own all the Wood property of Sheanmore manor, but within thirty years the old manor of Sheanmore, which once had just one owner, became the property of its many tenant farmers.[33]




   What modern townlands went towards forming the manor of Sheanmore? It is impossible to fix the absolute boundary of the manor. The tables below give an outline of its extent. The first table gives the townlands which we can say with good certainty were part of the manor. In the second table are townlands which could have been, but which also could have been part of adjoining manors. The townland of Sheanbeg was part of Mocollop manor until it became a detached portion following the Condon expansion.[34]


Table one







Ballyduff Upper


Ballyduff Lower




Ballyduff village






Garra east &west










Knockadullaun E






























Knockadullaun W



Table two


Ballygally west




Ballygally east


Coolydoody north




Coolydoody south





End of post




[1] Gabriel O’Connell Redmond, “The Castles in North-East Cork, and Near its Borders”, in the Journal of Cork Historical and Archaeological Society (hence fore JCHAS), vol 24 (1918), p. 62

[2] Ibid, JCHAS vol, 24, p. 2

[3] Kieran Heffernan and Friedrich Billensteiner, The History of Strancally Castle and the Valley of the Blackwater between Lismore and Youghal (Authors, 1997), p. 16

[4] Gabriel O’Connell Redmond, “The Castles of North-East Cork and near its Borders”, in the  JCHAS, vol, 24, p. 64

[5] Fiants of Queen Elizabeth, No. 1045

[6] Conna Community Council, Conna in History and Tradition, p. 7

[7] Mary O’Dowd (ed.), Calendar of the State Papers Ireland, Tudor Period 1571-1575 (Dublin, 2000), No. 31 Letter from Nicholas White to Sir William Cecil, Lord Burghley dated 15 May 1571

[8] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen, editors, Calendar of Carew manuscripts in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, Kraus, 1974 reprint), vol. 1 (1515-74), p. 417

[9] Fiants of Queen Elizabeth, No. 2964

[10] Mary O’Dowd (ed.), Calendar of State Papers Ireland Tudor Period, 1571-1575, No. 1420.5 The confession of Thomas Brack, one of James Fitzmaurice’s men, no date

[11] Gabriel O’Connell Redmond, “The Castles of North-East Cork and near its Borders”, in the JCHAS, vol 24, p. 63

[12] Fiants of Queen Elizabeth, No. 4339

[13] Gabriel O’Connell Redmond, “The Castles of North-East Cork and near its Borders”, in the  JCHAS, vol 24, p. 63

[14] Ibid, JCHAS, vol 24, p. 62

[15] Samuel Hayman, The Hand-book for Youghal, (Youghal, 1973, facsimile edition), p. 18

[16] H.F. Morris, “The Pynes of Co. Cork”, in The Irish Genealogist, vol 6, no. 6, p. 703

[17] R.J. Hunter, “The disruption of a Munster plantation enterprise, 1598”, in the JCHAS, vol 75, p. 159

[18] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey, 1654-1656, vol VI, county  of Waterford, with appendices: Muskerry Barony, Co. Cork: Kilkenny city and liberties, (Dublin, 1942), p. 5

[19] R.J. Hunter, “The disruption of a Munster plantation enterprise, 1598”, in the  JCHAS, vol 75, p. 159

[20] Journal of the Waterford and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society, vol 10 (1907), p. 136

[21] R.J. Hunter, “The disruption of a Munster plantation enterprise, 1598”, in the  JCHAS, vol 75, p. 160

[22] Samuel Hayman, The Hand-book for Youghal, p. 17

[23] Extracts from the diary of Richard Boyle from Grossart, as written in Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), [hereafter refer to as Upper Blackwater], vol 6, p. 340

[24] Brewer & William Bullen, editors, Calendar of Carew manuscripts in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, vol. 6 (1603-24), p. 341

[25] Royal Irish Academy, Ordnance Survey, Books of Inquisitions, Waterford, vol. 1, p. 64, inquest at Tallow in 1611.

[26] Mahaffy, Robert, editor, Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, Charles I, (Liechtenstein, Kraus, 1979 reprint), vol 1 (1625-32), pp. 120, 128 & 139

[27] Rev Patrick Power, The Place names of the Decies, (Cork University Press, 1952), p. 34 and extracted from Boyle’s diary for 1 May 1627

[28] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The civil survey, 1654-1656, Vol VI, county of Waterford with appendices, p. 5 for Shean/Ballyduff and p. 12 for Glenbeg/Coolisheal

[29] Seamus Pender (ed.) with a new introduction by William J. Smyth, A census of Ireland, circa 1659 with essential materials from the Poll Money Ordinances 1660-1661, (Dublin, 2002), pp. 338-339

[30] Copy of the Survey and Distribution Book on Lismore parish given to the author by Paddy John Feeney

[31] R. Caulfield, The Council book of the Corporation of Youghal (Guildford, 1878), p. 304

[32]  Information on the Jackson family got from various sources over many years and land              ownership in 1850 extracted from Griffith’s Valuation of County Waterford, Barony of  Coshmore/Coshbride, Lismore/Mocollop parish

[33] Information about the general history of the period 1550-1600 is based on the book The Twilight Lords by Richard Berleth (New York, 1994)

[34] Royal Irish Academy, Ordnance Survey, Books of Inquisitions, Waterford, vol. 1, p. 257.

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