Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Prebends in the medieval church

Prebends in the medieval church

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Across the archives of the medieval church references are made to prebends and prebendaries. This article brings a fraction of these references together to get a picture of medieval prebends. Yet even in this long article there are many aspects of prebends that are left out as space, even on the web, has limits.

Introduction

A prebend is a salary given to a clergyman connected with a cathedral or a collegiate church. Yet it is also possible for a layman to receive a prebend as a prebend is not an ecclesiastical benefice. The word prebend comes from the Latin praebenda which means allowance or things to be furnished. A prebendary is a cleric who possesses a prebend.[1]

A prebend is often associated with a canonry in a church but one is not the same as the other. A canonry is a spiritual right which a person obtains in a church along with a stall in the choir and a place in the Chapter. The prebend is a spiritual right to receive certain profits due to the canon, on his merits, for attending and taking part in divine service in a cathedral or collegiate church.[2] One can be a canon in a church who receives no prebendary income. Among the other rules relating to prebends was that prebends, which were newly settled on a church, were not supposed to be of lesser value than the ancient prebends.[3]

Foundation of a prebend

The foundation of a prebend is more often than not lost in the mists of the undocumented past. Yet sometimes we witness the beginnings of a prebend. Between 1109 and 1117 King Henry I gave the churches of Heytesbury (Wiltshire) and Godalming (Surrey) to the cathedral of Sarum (Salisbury) to form a prebend in the cathedral. The two churches came with all their adjunct church lands and tithes. In 1281 the prebends of Heytesbury and Godalming were confirmed as the property of the dean of Salisbury.[4]
Further north, in 1267, five prebends were established within the church of Howden under the patronage of the prior of Durham. Each of the five prebends had land and income rights in a number of locations. The chief places of each prebend was at: the first prebend was at Howden, second at Barneby, third at Thorp, fourth prebend at Laxton and the fifth prebend at Saltmarsh.[5]

In Ireland in 1191 John Comyn, Archbishop of Dublin, created the parish church of St. Patrick into a prebendal church with thirteen prebends, to reflect Christ and the twelve Apostles. The prebendaries were to promote good living and learning. Just like at Wells Cathedral and other places, the prebendaries were exempt from visitations by the archdeacon. The prebendaries were to have dwelling houses built about the graveyard for their use and thus be near the cathedral to take part in the many religious ceremonies of a medieval church.

St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin

The income of the thirteen prebends was to come from the churches, tithes and obventions of the altar and cemetery in a number of parishes. They also got money from the tithes of various chapels and manors. The canons and prebendaries in St. Patricks administered the church and managed their own affairs. In 1193, Prince John, count of Mortain and Lord of Ireland, gave his church of Crumlin to make a prebend in St. Patrick’s church. The process of establishing the prebends at St. Patrick’s was completed in 1224-28 when Archbishop Henry of Dublin placed the institution of the prebendaries under the dean of St. Patrick’s. The prebendaries were also granted certain ceremony rights at masses. These rights were gathered from the practices in five English cathedrals, namely; Salisbury, Oxford, Lincoln, Wells and St. Paul’s.[6]

Elsewhere a prebend could be created from a rectory while the rector was still the incumbent. In 1365 the rectory of Desertlyn, County Derry, was held by Master John Mcbirragra, a canon of Armagh, as rector. In May 1365 the rectory was converted into a prebend for John’s life. John was exonerated from the cure of his parishioners which job was assigned to his vicar.[7] After John’s death the prebend of Desertlyn was reformed into a rectory, even if some of the rectors were canons at Armagh Cathedral.[8]

You could also have a rector who was at the same time prebendary of the same parish. In 1456 David Olougheran was both rector and prebendary of the parish of Ballyclog, County Tyrone.[9] 

The number of prebends in a cathedral

The number of prebends attached to a cathedral varied from diocese to diocese. The normal layout was that each cathedral official (dean, chancellor, precentor and treasurer), had a prebend and each canon had a prebend. In large cathedrals like at Wells there were not enough parishes available to satisfy all the needs for a prebend. Thus episcopal manors were divided into different prebends. The manor of Wedmore was divided into five separate prebends and the manor of Cumba St. Nicholas was divided into fifteen separate prebends.[10] Even with about fifty prebends at Wells there were some canons that did not have a prebend or at least had no known prebend attached to their name.[11]

The bishop or archbishop of a cathedral could also have a prebend. In 1230 King Henry III granted the prebend of Stamuthan to Luke, Archbishop elect of Dublin, and his successors. The grant was in compensation to the Dublin diocese caused by the building and fortifying of Dublin Castle which was built on church land.[12]

Not every prebend in a cathedral was held by a cathedral official

In a large cathedral like Wells in Somerset not all the prebends were held by cathedral officials or cathedral canons. Bishop Savaric Fitz Geldewin of Bath and Glastonbury (1191-1205) created the church of Sutton into a prebend church of Wells Cathedral for the use of Benedict, Abbot of Athelney and his successors. The abbots were to hold the prebend without any obligations other than finding a vicar with a yearly stipend of four marks.[13]

Advertising a vacancy in a prebend

The appointment of a cleric to a prebend may have been as case of who you knew rather than what you knew but the existence of a vacancy in a prebend was public knowledge. In September 1317 the Bishop of Salisbury instructed the dean of Salisbury to make public the vacancy in the prebends of Ruscombe, Fordington and Writhlington due the deaths of the previous prebendaries.[14]

Prebends as property

Prebends were part of the property estate of a cathedral or collegiate church. Therefore the “prebendary” as a holder of a prebend was known could not hold a prebend as their personal property but only as a gift of the cathedral church for a set period of time.[15] At Wells Cathedral, Somerset, it was the rule that two-thirds of the first year’s fruits of any prebend vacated by death belonged to the Dean and Chapter and the other third belonged to the deceased holder of the prebend.[16]

If the deanery was vacant at Wells the proceeds of the dean’s prebend of Wedmore was appropriated to the common fund. If the other offices of the cathedral were vacant, the proceeds of heir prebends were appropriated to the bishop.[17] But a prebend didn’t have to be without an incumbent to have its funds shared among the other canons or cathedral officials. If a prebendary was absent from his prebend on certain church holidays or while on overseas travel a portion of the prebend income was shared among others. Archbishop Luke of Dublin (1228-1255) decreed that a fifth portion of an absent prebend be shared among the other canons. In 1532 the number of days to be absent was reduced to twelve church holidays in the year but the funds to be shared out were doubled after the practice at Salisbury.[18]

Like any other type of property, a prebend could be leased out to others. In 1236 St. Augustine’s Abbey at Bristol leased the prebend of Yatton, Wells Cathedral, for ten years from John Odolmer, the prebendary for 45 marks per year.[19] In 1345 Sir Thomas de Brembre, prebendary of the prebends of Stratton, Chermynstre and Byre (all in Dorset), granted the fruits of the prebends to six people for a whole year in a written agreement.[20]

Holding more than one prebend

Under normal canon law a person could not hold more the one prebend in any church or in different dioceses. But there were a number of exceptions where a number of prebends could be held by one person. These included: if the revenue of the prebend was small; if one church was dependent on another church; if the cleric held one church in titulum and the other church in commendam; if there were few inhabitants or lack of clergy and where one church was joined to another.[21]

These exceptions made the holding of a prebend a happy hunting ground for pluralist as they could bend the liberal rules even more to get possession of a number of prebends. There are many examples of clerics, and others, holding prebends in a number of dioceses. In 1309 John de Hothum held a canonry and prebend in the dioceses of St. Patrick’s, Dublin, of Cashel, Waterford, Emly and Leighlin along with two chaplaincies in Waterford. The total value of these was less than £29. De Hothum also held the archdeaconry of Glendalough and two parishes.[22]

Value of a prebend

The value of a prebend varied from place to place and over time. The value of a selected number of prebends (c.1460) attached to Wells Cathedral is given in the table below.[23]

Prebend
Value
Prebend
Value
Yatton
50 marks
Taunton
10 marks
Scanford
20 marks
Wedmore ii
10 marks
Bokland
£10
Dundene
20 marks
Holcombe
4 marks
Cumba iii
10 marks
Ilton
26 marks
Warminster
20 marks
Luttona
25 marks
Dynre
13 marks

Christ Church Cathedral, Waterford

The values of the prebends in a small diocese like that of Waterford in Ireland were much lower than at Wells. At Waterford the dean’s prebend was worth eight marks, precentor’s prebend, one mark, and chancellor’s prebend, 20 shillings, while the treasurer’s prebend was worth two marks. The canon prebends at Waterford varied in value from four marks to one mark.[24]

Yet sometimes the value of a prebend was considered to be insufficient for the proposed prebendary. A prebend in the church of Osmotherley, Yorkshire, was considered to be of insufficient value by a number of people. Archbishop William Melton of York found it difficult to give the prebend away. In April 1319 the archbishop got a papal letter from Pope John XXII allowing him to give the prebend of any person of his choice. In October 1319 Archbishop Melton instituted Richard Rogers of Newbold, an acolyte living in Melton, as the new prebendary.[25]  

Vicars in a prebend

Most prebends were associated with certain parishes. The canon received the prebend income from the parish while a vicar attended to the spiritual needs of the parishioners. Sometimes a canon could receive a prebend without the need to make provisions for the spiritual needs of the parishioners, or cure of souls, as it was called.

A parish priest could acquire a prebend by papal dispensation. These were called parochial prebends. In such cases the priest must provide a vicar to care for the souls while the priest resided in the larger church.[26] Canons that held a cathedral prebend were also to provide vicars to care for the spiritual needs of the parishioners of the prebend. The prebendary would present the vicar to the local bishop or his representative, for ordination and institution of the vicar.[27]

Sometimes the provision of a vicar to a prebend may come about many years after the foundation of the prebend. Earlier we noted that the prebend of Saltmarsh, Yorkshire, was founded in 1267 but was 1320 before a perpetual vicarage was established. At this establishment the vicarage was to be by institution of the archbishop of York and under the patronage of the prior of Durham. The vicar was to have the cure of souls and an annual stipend of 10 marks, payable in two instalments. The vicar was to be a resident and to obey the archbishop’s rules.[28]

A document in Wells Cathedral (c.1460) gives a good picture of what the vicar of a number of prebends could receive as his stipend. This document lists all the prebends of the cathedral, their value and the stipend the vicar of each.[29] A selected number of the prebends are given in the table below.

Value
Prebend
Vicar’s stipend
40 marks
Wyvelyscombe
40s
25 marks
Hengestrenge
40s
20 marks
Eston
2 marks (26s 8d)
16 marks
Wormister
20s
13 marks
Dynre
20s
10 marks
Cumba ix
2 marks

Just as the value of a prebend was variable the value of the vicarage in a prebendal church varied from place to place. In Salisbury Cathedral during the papal taxation of Pope Nicholas IV we see some of this variation. The prebend of Bere Regis and Charminster (Dorsetshire) was worth £5 as was the vicarage of same while the prebend of Chardstock (Dorsetshire) was worth £16 and its vicarage £5.[30]

Sometimes a vicar was entitled to gifts, over and above, a cash income. The new vicar of the prebendal church of Gillingham in 1319 was to receive a house, the small tithes in kind and cash along with the altarage and other church oblations.[31]

The Golden Prebend

Not all vicars in a prebend got a good living. In the second quarter of the thirteenth century it was found that the income for the vicar of the Swords prebend (Diocese of Dublin) was insufficient for his living and an ability to keep suitable hospitality.

The insufficient income for the vicar at Swords was bad management on behalf of the prebendary. This was because the Swords prebend was what was termed a “Golden Prebend”. A golden prebend was one that covered a large parish and may be even included areas of another parish. To care for the care of the parishioners a golden prebend contained a mother church and more than one chapel of ease. The prebend at Swords had the mother church and two chapels in the village of Swords with another five chapels scattered around the countryside in present-day north County Dublin. Added to this list were another four chapels outside the parish boundaries of Swords but which were annexed to the prebend over the previous half century.[32]

In addition to this income the prebendary was the chief prebend in the cathedral church and was chief confessor to the bishop. In the cathedral the prebendary had the offerings at the cathedral altar. Some of these offerings were of gold, which gave the golden prebend its name.[33]

All these churches and chapels with their numerous sources of church incomes like tithes, altarages, burials fees, etc. made Swords a valuable prebend to have – a golden prebend – and every cleric wanted it. But all this income sources made the prebendary greedy and the incumbent wanted more. Thus the vicar was given insufficient income to care for the parishioners of this large parish and manage the many chaplains under his control when he should have received a rector’s income rather than a vicar’s income.

Archbishop Luke intervened to increase the vicar’s income from 20 to 40 marks and made Alan the chaplain a cathedral canon as well as the vicar. The vicar was given the greater and lesser tithes of Kinsale chapel along with tithes of Swords manor and other income sources. But the size of the Swords prebend was still of great value and worth attaining. The prebend remained a golden prebend until 1452 when Swords was divided into three parts.[34]

But Swords was not the only golden prebend in the medieval church. Other dioceses also had these extra-large prebends like at Salisbury, Lichfield and Hereford. After the Reformation there were still Golden Prebends like at Durham.    

Not every prebend had a vicar

Not every prebend had the spiritual needs of its parishioners served by a vicar. Sometimes a chaplain performed these duties. In August 1362 the rectory of Tamlagh on the border between Counties Tyrone and Derry in Ireland was given to the cathedral church at Armagh. The parish of Tamlagh was then created into a prebend with Patrick Mac Cathmhaoil, a clerk and canon at Armagh, made prebendary. Patrick was to provide a chaplain to cure for the souls while Patrick took care of the rectory burdens.[35] These rectory burdens were like ensuring that the chancel area of the parish church was in good repair.

Prebends were not all profit

As noted above the prebend was not all profit to the prebendary. As well as paying for a vicar the prebendary paid out money to fund other church activity. The canons of Exeter Cathedral paid half their prebend income towards the fabric fund of the cathedral. The cathedral at Exeter was virtually rebuilt between 1279 and 1353 and all officials attached to the cathedral paid a portion of their income towards the fabric (building) fund. The prebend contribution was in proportion to the status of each cathedral official with the bishop giving the biggest contribution to the fabric fund. Thus the dean gave £6 7 shillings 4 pence, treasurer 64 shillings, precentor 60 shillings, chancellor 38 shillings and the twenty-four canons gave £48 – this gave a total of £62 9 shillings 4 pence per year with the bishop matching this total.[36]

Prebends in collegiate churches

The most common situation for a prebend was attached to a canon or other official of a cathedral church but you could also find prebends in other religious situations. Collegiate churches was one type of religious institution that had prebends attached.

In an earlier article - http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.ie/2013/07/morland-vicarage-and-lost-book.html - we saw how Richard de Havyngdon, vicar of the prebendal and collegiate church of Darlington exchanged his position with Henry de Appelby, vicar of Morland in 1335.[37]

The number of prebends in a collegiate church could change over time. In the time of Pope Nicholas IV (1288-1292) there were at St. Endellion collegiate church in Cornwall four prebends and no rector. Later the position of rector was created and the number of prebends was reduced to three.[38]

St Endellion church, Cornwall

The dean of a collegiate church instituted the cleric to the prebend. If the deanery was vacant then the local archbishop had the job of institution while the patron was somebody else. In 1491 the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Morton, instituted Edward Hasley to the prebend of Cotton within the collegiate church of Tamworth in the Diocese of Coventry and Lichfield. The king was patron of Tamworth.[39]

We met the collegiate church of Tamworth in an earlier article - http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.ie/2014/01/dean-john-bernard-of-tamworth-and-sale.html - on the conduct of Dean John Bernard. At Tamworth the dean held one of the prebends while the five canons held one prebend each. The jurisdiction of Tamworth covered just one parish. Therefore the geographical sizes of its prebends were much smaller compared to a cathedral prebend which usually covered an entire parish. Thus the prebends at Tamworth were assigned to a townland or village within the parish.[40]

Patronage of a prebend

The prebend, like most other church benefices, was under the patronage of some church official or lay person. Sometimes prebends attached to a cathedral or collegiate church had different patrons. Thus in the case of the collegiate church of St. Endellion in Cornwall, one prebend was under the patronage of Bodmin Priory while another prebend was under the Bodrugan family.[41]

Often at the institution of a new prebendary to a prebend, as with the new rector or vicar to a parish, the patronage and status of the prebend was examined by officials of the local bishop. Yet sometimes this inquiry was not taken at the institution of a new prebendary. Walter Hervey was admitted as prebendary of South Newton (Wiltshire) in the time of Bishop Simon of Ghent (1297-1315) without an inquiry into the status and ownership of the prebend. It was February 1318 before such an inquiry took place when it was found that the prebend was owned by Wilton Abbey and the prebendary had the right of a stall in the abbey church.[42]

Prebends in abbeys and nunneries

As well as having prebends attached to a cathedral or collegiate church, a medieval traveller could also find prebends attached to an abbey or nunnery. The prebend of All Cannings in Wiltshire was held by the Benedictine nunnery of St. Mary, Winchester. As only men could serve as rectors and vicars thus among the prebendaries to hold All Cannings we find William of Barton and Robert of Norton. St. Marys also possessed the prebend of Urchfont in Wiltshire.[43]

Other convents and nunneries to possess prebends included the Benedictine convent of Wilton Abbey which held the prebends of Broad Chalk, North Newnton and South Newton, all in Wiltshire.[44] These prebends, as those connected with other religious houses, provided the prebendary with a stall in the religious house.[45]

The Benedictine convent of Romsey Abbey held the prebend of Edington, Wiltshire along with the prebend of St. Laurence at Romsey.[46] The prebend churches of Fontmell, Gillingham and Iwerne Minster, in Dorset, were held by Shaftesbury Abbey.[47]

Disputes over prebends

As with other things in life prebends attracted their own disputes over the centuries. Some prebends even attracted disputes before the prebendary took possession. In March 1317 William de Fresepanis refused to accept the prebend of Blewbury, Berkshire, which was offered to him by Bishop of Salisbury in accordance with papal provision. Blewbury was a prebend attached to Salisbury Cathedral but in 1317 it was subject to litigation and William de Fresepanis, a canon of Salisbury, would not have it while the litigation continued.[48]

Other disputes relating to a prebend could originate from another type of benefice. In 1317 George de Saluciis, precentor of Salisbury was ordered to pay a pension to Robert de Bluntesdon, prebendary of North Newnton (possession of Wilton Abbey) in respect of the prebend which Robert held from Wilton Abbey. This directive followed from an earlier dispute between the two men concerning the tithes of land in Westbury.[49]

Prebends at the Reformation

At the time of the Reformation in the 1530s and 1540s the holders of a prebend attached to a dissolved collegiate church were made redundant. If the prebendary quietly gave up his prebend he got a state pension. At the collegiate church of Holy Cross, Crediton, the prebendary of Henstyle got £13 6 shillings 8 pence, the prebendary of Pole got £10, the prebendary of Aller got £12 and the prebendary of Crosse got £11.[50]

Prebends after the Reformation

The provision of a prebend did not end with the Reformation of Henry VIII and the changes of his successors. The editor of the register of Bishop John de Grandisson of Exeter, Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph, was a rector of Ringmore and a prebendary of Exeter in 1899.[51] In the twentieth century Prebendary T.F. Palmer was for many years honorary secretary of the Somerset Record Society.

Elsewhere in the far reaches of Cornwall the collegiate church of St. Endellion was forgotten about in the rush to dissolve religious houses at the Reformation. Today the church exists with a rector holding the prebend of St. Endellion and three canons having the prebends of Bodmin, Mornays and Trelaverock.[52]

After our visit to St. Endellion we come to the end of our examination of prebends in the medieval church.

============

End of post

============




[1] Clarence Barnhart (ed.), The World Book Dictionary (Chicago, 1975), pp. 1623-4
[2] John Ayliffe, Parergon Juris Canonici Anglicani (London, 1726), p. 419
[3] John Ayliffe, Parergon Juris Canonici Anglicani (London, 1726), p. 420
[4] Rev. W.R. Jones & Rev. W.D. Macray (eds), Charters and documents illustrating the history of the Cathedral, City and Diocese of Salisbury (Stationery Office, London, 1891), pp. 3, 358
[5] Rosalind M.T. Hill (ed.), The Register of William Melton, Archbishop of York, 1317-1340, volume 1 (Canterbury & York Society, 1977), no. 377
[6] Charles McNeill (ed.), Calendar of Archbishop’s Alen’s Register c.1172-1534 (Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Dublin, 1950), pp. 18-19, 23, 61; Dom Aelred Watkins (ed.), Dean Cosyn and Wells Cathedral Miscellanea (Somerset Record Society, Vol. 56, 1941), p. 54
[7] Brendan Smith (ed.), The Register of Milo Sweteman, Archbishop of Armagh, 1361-1380 (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 1996), no. 150
[8] Brendan Smith (ed.), The Register of Nicholas Fleming, Archbishop of Armagh, 1404-1416 (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 2003), no. 28
[9] W.G.H. Quigley & E.F.D. Roberts (eds.), Registrum Iohannis Mey: The Register of John Mey, Archbishop of Armagh, 1443-1456 (Stationery Office, Belfast, 1972), no. 302
[10] Dom Aelred Watkins (ed.), Dean Cosyn and Wells Cathedral Miscellanea, p. 15
[12] Charles McNeill (ed.), Calendar of Archbishop’s Alen’s Register c.1172-1534, p. 63
[13] Dom Aelred Watkins (ed.), Dean Cosyn and Wells Cathedral Miscellanea, p. 97
[14] C.R. Elrington (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, 1315-1330, Vol. 2: Register of Divers Letters (Canterbury & York Society, 1963), p. 218
[15] John Ayliffe, Parergon Juris Canonici Anglicani (London, 1726), p. 420
[16] Dom Aelred Watkins (ed.), Dean Cosyn and Wells Cathedral Miscellanea (Somerset Record Society, Vol. 56, 1941), p. 14
[17] Dom Aelred Watkins (ed.), Dean Cosyn and Wells Cathedral Miscellanea, p. 94
[18] Charles McNeill (ed.), Calendar of Archbishop’s Alen’s Register c.1172-1534, p. 282
[19] J.A. Bennett (ed.), Report on the Manuscripts of Wells Cathedral (Historical Manuscripts Commission, 1885), p. 35
[20] M.C.B. Dawes (ed.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem preserved in the Public Record Office (Stationery Office, London, 1935), Vol. 11, Edward III, No. 129
[21] John Ayliffe, Parergon Juris Canonici Anglicani (London, 1726), p. 420
[22] C.H. Lawrence, 'The English parish and its clergy in the thirteenth century', in The Medieval World, edited by Peter Linehan & Janet Nelson (Routledge, London, 2001), pp. 657-658; W.H. Bliss (ed.), Calendar of Papal Letters relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Volume II, 1305-1342 (Stationery Office, London, 1895), p. 50
[23] Dom Aelred Watkins (ed.), Dean Cosyn and Wells Cathedral Miscellanea, p. 15
[24] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland (Kraus reprint, 1974), pp. 303, 304
[25] Rosalind M.T. Hill (ed.), The Register of William Melton, Archbishop of York, 1317-1340, volume 1, no. 379
[26] John Ayliffe, Parergon Juris Canonici Anglicani (London, 1726), p. 420
[27] C.R. Elrington (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, 1315-1330, Vol. 2: Register of Divers Letters, p. 247
[28] Rosalind M.T. Hill (ed.), The Register of William Melton, Archbishop of York, 1317-1340, volume 1, no. 385
[29] Dom Aelred Watkins (ed.), Dean Cosyn and Wells Cathedral Miscellanea, p. 15
[30] John Caley (ed.), Taxatio Ecclesiastica Angliae et Walliae, c.1291 (Record Commission, 1802), pp. 181, 182
[31] C.R. Elrington (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, 1315-1330, Vol. 2: Register of Divers Letters, p. 247
[32] William Monk Mason, The history and antiquaries of the collegiate and cathedral church of St. Patrick near Dublin from its foundation in 1190 to the year 1819 (author, 1820), pp. 49-50
[33] Thomas E. Tomlins & Thomas C. Granger, The law directory, Explaining the rise, progress and present state of the British Law (Longmans, London, 1835), p. xxviii
[34] Charles McNeill (ed.), Calendar of Archbishop’s Alen’s Register c.1172-1534, p. 85
[35] Brendan Smith (ed.), The Register of Milo Sweteman, Archbishop of Armagh, 1361-1380, nos. 126, 127
[36] Audrey M. Erskine (ed.), The accounts of the fabric of Exeter Cathedral, 1279-1353, part 2: 1328-1353 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vol. 26, 1983), pp. ix-x
[37] R.L. Storey (ed.), The Register of John Kirkby, Bishop of Carlisle, 1332-1352 (Canterbury & York Society, 1993), Vol. 1, nos. 246, 248
[38] L.E. Elliott-Binns, Medieval Cornwall (Methuen, London, 1955), p. 361
[39] Christopher Harper-Bill (ed.), The Register of John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1486-1500, volume 2 (Canterbury & York Society, 1991), no. 26
[41] Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The Register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1327-1369), Part III, 1360-1369 (George Bell, London, 1899), pp. 1327, 1335
[42] C.R. Elrington (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, 1315-1330, Vol. 2: Register of Divers Letters, p. 321
[43] Kathleen Edwards (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, 1315-1330, Vol. 1: Index (Canterbury & York Society, 1960), pp. 445, 499
[44] Kathleen Edwards (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, Vol. 1: Index, pp. 447, 479
[45] C.R. Elrington (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, 1315-1330, Vol. 2: Register of Divers Letters, p. 321
[46] Kathleen Edwards (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, Vol. 1: Index, pp. 455, 486
[47] Kathleen Edwards (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, Vol. 1: Index, pp. 459, 461, 467
[48] C.R. Elrington (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, 1315-1330, Vol. 2: Register of Divers Letters, p. 187; In November 1316 William’s father, Gordan de Fresepanis had got papal letters for William to have a canonry and prebend in Salisbury diocese. W.H. Bliss (ed.), Calendar of Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 2, 1305-1342 (Stationery Office, London, 1895), p. 124
[49] C.R. Elrington (ed.), The Registers of Roger Martival, Bishop of Salisbury, 1315-1330, Vol. 2: Register of Divers Letters (Canterbury & York Society, 1963), p. 175
[50] Lawrence S. Snell, The suppression of the religious foundations of Devon and Cornwall (author, 1967), p. 108
[51] Rev. F.C. Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The Register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, Part III, title page
[52] Lawrence S. Snell, The suppression of the religious foundations of Devon and Cornwall, p. 94

No comments:

Post a Comment