Friday, December 27, 2013

Mocollop Castle, Co. Waterford: A history of a medieval castle: Chapters five & six

Mocollop Castle, Co. Waterford:

A History of a Medieval Castle


Niall C.E.J. O'Brien

[Link to chapters one and two = chapters one and two]

[Link to chapters three and four = chapters three and four]


Chapter five

    Sometime before 1420 major changes occurred in the size and geographical location of the manor of Mocollop. Documentary evidence from 1420 onwards indicates two manors within the medieval parish of Mocollop. The manor of Mocollop occupied the western side of the parish and was owned by the Barry family. The area east of present Ballyduff village and directly south of the village towards Sheanmore tower house was owned by the Fitzgerald family, Earls of Desmond. At what point in time were the two manors created is as yet unknown.

Sheanmore tower house, Co. Waterford, north façade 

Further geographical changes occurred in the Mocollop area at other as yet unknown times. The manor of Mocollop acquired the additional townlands of Inchinleamy, Countygate, RaspberryHill, Knockaunroe and Cahergal in the civil parish of Leitrim. These were originally owned by the Condon family of Kilworth. The tithes of Leitrim parish were granted by the Condons to Glascarrig priory in Wexford which was founded by the family. At same time or at some other time the Condons of Kilworth expanded their area of ownerships from the present townland of Careysville eastwards along the south bank of the Blackwater. In this expansion, or series of expansions, the Condons acquired the townlands of Kilbarry, Ballydorgan, Modeligo, Kilcoran, Waterpark, Glenagurteen, Garrynagoul and Marston.

How the Condons expanded their area of ownership is unknown. The early expansion from Careysville to Kilbarry and onto Modeligo, Kilcoran and Waterpark could have been by military means. After that the Condon expansion would seem to be by purchase. If it was by military action the present boundary between Cork and Waterford would be a near straight line. But the boundary follows a great curving movement as Sheanbeg in County Waterford is surrounded on three sides by County Cork. In fact the present county boundary has frozen in time the ownership situation of around 1571. The Condons lived at Kilworth and wanted all their land in Cork while the Fitzgeralds lived in the medieval county of Waterford and so they wanted all their land in the new County Waterford and so the formation of the boundary was determined.      

Sometime between 1456 and 1460 Ellis, daughter of William de Barry, 8th Baron Barrymore married Thomas Fitz James Fitzgerald, eldest son of James Fitzgerald, 7th Earl of Desmond. William’s father John de Barry had married a daughter of a previous Earl of Desmond.

By the terms of the marriage a nice dowry came to the Fitzgeralds. The manors and property of Conna, Cooldurragh, Ballytrasna and Mocollop came to the Fitzgeralds. William de Barry reconfirmed the transfer in 1466 Thomas and Ellis.[1] By a peace agreement in the 1356 the Fitzgeralds had all ready acquired the local manors of the Barrys at Aghern, Knockmourne and Ballynoe.

The Fitzgerald hundred year quest to acquire Mocollop was now a fact. James, 7th Earl of Desmond lost no time in developing the castle. The chronicles tell us he rebuilt the castle. During the Barry period of ownership the castle had declined since the Black Death. Due to the isolated location of Mocollop, far from the centre of the Barry lordship, meant that little money was spent on Mocollop for decades.

Some people think that the rebuilding of James Fitzgerald was in fact the first building of the castle. But this can be disproved by the structure of the central keep. If 1460 was the first building then the keep would have had a stone vault over the ground floor and may be another value over an upper floor. As the present structure shows no such vault and instead shows the evidence of a flat timber floor proves the c.1220 date for the first building.

James Fitzgerald was very interested in the rebuilding of Mocollop and died there in 1462.[2] He was then buried in the South Abbey at Youghal, site of the present Presentation Convent.[3] Thomas Fitzgerald, the eldest son, became the 8th Earl of Desmond while his younger brother, Garret became ancestor of the Fitzgeralds of Dromana.[4] In 1463 Thomas Fitzgerald became deputy for the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, George of Clarence. Thomas was now head of the Dublin government and embarked on a campaign of castle building around the Leinster Pale. Meanwhile work at Mocollop continued until 1464.

Thomas Fitzgerald continued the family feud against the Butlers of Kilkenny and led campaigns against the O’Briens of Thomond. But along the way Thomas gathered powerful enemies. One of these was Queen Elizabeth Woodville. The Queen had recently married King Edward IV but her low social status and the quality of her relations were considered not fit for a king. Thomas Fitzgerald was against the marriage and the Queen did not forget this opposition. She arranged for John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester to become deputy of Ireland instead of Thomas. Tiptoft called a parliament at Drogheda in February 1468 and these arrested Thomas on a trumped up charge of treason. Before anybody could react to this charge Tiptoft had Thomas beheaded.[5] The Earl was firstly buried in St. Peter’s Church, Drogheda but was later reburied in Christ Church, Dublin.[6]

The five sons of Earl Thomas were enraged and went into rebellion. They advanced with out of Munster and almost levelled the Pale. Soon after a peace agreement was reached and compensation was given. Thomas was succeeded as earl by the eldest four of his sons. The fifth son, Gerald Oge was made Lord of Coshmore and Coshbride. This district stretched along the west bank of the River Blackwater and east of the present Cork/Waterford boundary. Places like Templemichael, Knockanore, Tallow, Lisfinny, Lismore, Sheanmore and Mocollop are all within this district. Gerald Oge made the castle of Mocollop as the headquarters of his new area.[7]

For the first time since Philip White in the late 13th century Mocollop had a resident lord. Gerald Oge lived for the next fifty years and his impact upon the manor must have been considerable, we just don’t have the documentary evidence to say what that impact was. Gerald Oge Fitzgerald was killed in 1477 or peacefully died in 1520 depending on the source you wish to believe.[8] Gerald left four sons. Each of these sons got a part of Coshmore and Coshbride as their own place. Of course the earl of Desmond was still the owner of the whole region and the local Fitzgeralds had the place on long term leases. This fact would be of importance 65 years later when all the property of the then 15th Earl of Desmond was seized after his rebellion including Coshmore/Coshbride.

James the eldest got Mocollop; Maurice the second son got Sheanmore, while Thomas the next son got Kilmacow. The last son, John, got Strancally and Lisfinny but when he died in 1550 leaving a twelve year old son, the 15th Earl of Desmond seized the two manors and carried young Thomas into prison where he died in 1554.[9]

Chapter six

    The Fitzgeralds were like other landlords and enjoyed the pleasures of their estate income. Other people actually did the day to day working at Mocollop. The seneschal was the chief estate officer while the chief officer of the castle was the constable. It would appear that in the 16th century the one person held both offices at Mocollop. The family of McGrath held the office of constable through many generations. This family settled in Waterford in the first half of the fifteenth century and made the area around Slieve Gua (between Dungarvan and Clonmel). An altar tomb of Donal McGrath was built in the Augustinian Abbey at Abbeyside in 1470.[10]

A descendent of Donal was John McGrath who was constable of Mocollop in the 1530s. John had at least two sons of which Donal McGrath of Mountain Castle was one. This man died in 1548 and the altar tomb in St. Carthage’s cathedral, Lismore is his commission. The other son was John McGrath and his wife was Ellen Prendergast, both of whom are buried in the Lismore altar tomb.[11]

McGrath tomb in Lismore Cathedral of St. Carthage 

John of Lismore had a son called John Oge McGrath and he was constable of Mocollop in the 1560s. He was removed after the battle of Affane in 1565 when forces of the Butlers of Ormond were at Mocollop. They were shortly removed by the government as it tried to gain control over Munster in the private war between the Fitzgeralds and Butlers.

By 1568 the Fitzgeralds had recovered Mocollop. Eleanor, Countess of Desmond managed the Fitzgerald property when her husband the 15th Earl was in jail in England. On 18 November 1568 the Earl sent her a letter directing that “the bearer John Oge McGrath was to be reinstated in the custody of the manor of Mokawllopoie in the County of Waterford … and that Donnachadh McGrath was to deliver the said manor and castle to his father, John McGrath”.[12]

It would appear that the Earl of Desmond had assumed direct ownership of Mocollop around this time. An inquisition taken in 1572 found the Earl had possession of Mocollop as early as 1565. Thomas Fitzgerald of Kilmacow Castle acted as seneschal for the Earl at that time. We further learn that the Mocollop Fitzgeralds held the lands of Bridane, Ballyforge and White’s Town on the River Bride.[13]

The detached portion of Mocollop manor is of interest. Medieval estates were rarely co-terminus. Farm fragmentation was a very common situation. The said townlands lying on the navigable River Bride would suggest that they were used by Mocollop as the port of that manor. This situation is reflected on a grander scale in Leinster. The liberty of Carlow held New Ross as its port while the lordship of Dunamase in Laois had Bannow in Wexford as its port and owned the port.

James Fitzgerald, eldest son of Gerald Oge Fitzgerald had inherited Mocollop from his father in 1477 or more possibly 1520. As the eldest son he also became Lord of Coshmore and Coshbride. James of Mocollop died in 1557 leaving four sons. The eldest son, Maurice Fitzgerald, inherited Mocollop and became Lord of Coshmore/Coshbride. His brother, Gerald ‘Brack’ Fitz James served as Dean of Lismore (1564-1583) without ever becoming a cleric and got the job when he was only a boy. Another brother was Thomas ‘Brack’ Fitz James who was the father of John Mac Thomas Brack. The fourth son of James of Mocollop was called John.[14]

The aforementioned 1572 inquisition tells us that James Fitzgerald of Mocollop had died. At first impression it would seem his heir must have been under age and this was way the Earl had assumed direct control. But Maurice, the eldest son must have been over 40 in 1572 as his son James was of military age in the first Desmond rebellion. The assumption of control by the Earl must have occurred for another reason. This reason would seem to be because of disobedience.

In 1565 Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana wanted to throw off any feudal obligations to the Earl of Desmond. This disobedience cause the Earl to into west Waterford with an army in 1565 and a battle ensured at Affane. Maurice Fitzgerald as Lord of Mocollop was in the pathway of Desmond’s army and may have refused the Earl a right to pass through Mocollop. Maurice may also have sympathised with Fitzgerald of Dromana and could have had ambitions to become more independent. This independence was against the earl’s rights and was not acceptable; hence the Earl assumed direct control of Mocollop.

Yet peaceful times were not restored for long. The first Desmond rebellion started in the summer of 1569. The claim by Sir Peter Carew to the land of Coshbride was one of the causes of the war.[15]

By 1571 English forces had defeated the Irish in many parts of Ireland. The Earl of Ormond, Thomas ‘Black Tom’ Butler, cousin of Queen Elizabeth and lifelong schemer against the Desmonds advanced into Munster. Moving through west Waterford and up the Blackwater he was joined by Sir Thomas Roe Fitzgerald of Conna.[16]

Sir Thomas was a son of the 14th Earl of Desmond by his first wife, Joan, daughter of Maurice Lord Roche, Viscount Fermoy and should have become the next Earl on his father’s death. But the 14th earl divorced his first wife and married Mór O’Carroll by whom he had Gerald Fitzgerald among other children. The old Earl declared his first marriage illegal and the children of same were declared illegitimate and so Gerald became 15th earl of Desmond. In compensation Sir Thomas Roe got the manor of Conna. He was knighted by the English in 1569.[17]

South façade of Conna tower house, County Cork

But Conna was of little compensation and when rebellion broke out Thomas Roe fought on the English side. As the Earl of Ormond advanced on Mocollop in 1571 Thomas Roe came to help. Together they besieged the castle. Sir James Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald defended the castle instead of his father. Many local lords adopted this approach whereby the son went out in rebellion while the father stayed at peace. This was to ensure the survival of the family estate. In was normal practice for any person who rebelled against the crown to have their lands forfeited to the crown as punishment. The later acquisition of land by Oliver Cromwell from the defeated Irish in the 1650s was simply a continuation of established practice.

James Fitz Maurice surrendered Mocollop to the Earl of Ormond on 4 May 1571. The castle was then possibly occupied by some of Ormond’s troops while the Earl moved on into County Cork. James Fitz Maurice displayed the personae of a loyal citizen until the main army was well gone. He then assembled an armed force and went off to attack Conna tower house. Thomas Roe was gone off with the Earl of Ormond yet still the tower was well defended. James Fitz Maurice killed 40 of Thomas Roe’s troops and captured another 16. He then had two captains of the gallowglass hanged for their part in attacking Mocollop.[18] After having got his own back on the neighbours James once again adopted the loyal citizen personae. On 8 December 1572 he submitted to the English commander, Lord Bourchier.[19]

In 1573 Rory McShane McGrath, constable of Lisfinny tower house and son of John McGrath, constable of Mocollop, successfully attacked Conna tower house.[20] It was August 1574 before Sir Thomas Roe recovered Conna after Rory’s defeat near Clonmel.[21]

During the 1570s pardons were given out by the Dublin government in an attempt to restore some sort of peace. The political situation was still uncertain. Intermittent military activity occurred across the province followed by peace once a large English force had arrived at the flash point. On 15 February 1577 Maurice Fitz James Fitzgerald and his two sons, Gerald and James, received a pardon for fraternising with those causing unrest.[22]

Meanwhile the Earl of Desmond had many enemies within the English government and many across the country who sought to undo the Earl for their own gain. In September 1574 the Earl passed his vast estates into the hands of trustees in an effort to secure his inheritance should anything further go wrong. The trustees were James Butler, Lord Dunboyne, John Power, Lord Curraghmore and John Fitz Edmund Fitzgerald of Cloyne. The manor of Mocollop was one of the properties given to the trustees by the Earl’s bailiffs. Over seeing the transfer of Mocollop was John Sinnott, Maurice Fitzgerald, John Oge McGrath, Charles Boy and Nicholas Roche.[23]  

For many years the 15th Earl of Desmond was away from Munster for too long in English jails and other people assumed leadership of the province and would not give up their newly acquired power. Sir Maurice of Desmond was one such person and in 1579 he brought Spanish troops into Kerry. The Earl of Desmond was instructed to defeat these forces but could not muster his troops to do so. The Dublin government declared the Earl to be a rebel and the second Desmond War began. 

The war effectively ended with the death of the 15th Earl of Desmond on a hill side near Tralee in November 1583 but military operations continued for a few more weeks. There were still members of the Fitzgerald family who could have assumed leadership of the Desmond Earldom but the English had had enough of Desmond Earls. They had the entire Earldom seized as forfeited land including Mocollop.

In the spring of 1584 surveyors travelled across Munster mapping the province and establishing who owned what property.[24]

In 1586, Sir Walter Raleigh got 42,000 acres stretching from Youghal to Cappoquin and onto Lismore with land along the Bride River including Tallow, Lisfinny, Mogeely and Conna. Not only did Sir Walter get all this land when the largest grant to each planter was suppose to be 12,000 acres but he got a good deal on the crown rent also. The rent he should have paid to the crown was £233 6s 6d but Sir Walter got he lot for £66 6s 8d rent per year.[25]

The manor of Mocollop was not initially assigned to Raleigh but if he could not find 42,000 in the initially area described above then Mocollop along with the lands of Patrick Condon adjoining to the west (i.e. Waterpark, Kilcoran, Marston, Garrynagoul, Modeligo, etc.).[26] Thomas Fleetwood was to get Mocollop along with the Condon lands around Kilworth instead and other lands around Kilwatermoy.[27] But Fleetwood didn't have the court connections to secure possession.

The north-east tower of Mocollop castle showing the north façade (left) and the west façade (right)

On 28 February 1587 Sir Walter Raleigh was granted Mocollop Castle and lands to hold in fee farm forever. To help Raleigh to get better title to Mocollop three members of the Fitzgerald family of Mocollop were attained for rebellion. They were Gerald ‘Brack’ Fitz James (ex dean of Lismore) and his brother Thomas ‘Brack’ Fitz James and Thomas’s son, John Mac Thomas ‘Brack’ Fitzgerald.[28]

Mocollop was described as a castle, a town and five ploughlands.[29] The usual notion is that a ploughland corresponds to about 120 statute acres. If this is so then Mocollop should be of 600 acres. But this is a wrong assumption. A statute acre is s set geographical area without any room for variation. A ploughland is not a measure of geographical area but a measure of land quality for arable production. Other types of land such as pasture, meadow and wood was regarded as extra ground to the arable land. A measure of five ploughlands for Mocollop appears to be a good measure. This would suggest that a good part of the manor was farmland despite a substantial part of the manor been composed of high country.

Sir Walter Raleigh was instructed to settle English people across his new lands. In 1592 he leased Mocollop to George Conyers. A descendent of George was another George Conyers of the 1690s who acquired land in County Limerick. The Conyers married into the Drew family in 1872.[30]

When George Conyers took Mocollop it consisted of the castle, town and land. Also included was a mill. Since the early Norman period a mill was in the manor of Mocollop as was the custom in nearly every manor. In rare occasions a manor used the mill of a neighbouring manor. The presence of a mill coupled with the high ploughland measure suggests arable farming was carried on in a larges scale.

In 1595 Hugh O’Neill began what became known as the Nine Years War. The war took off in Munster in 1597. Thomas Norris, the English commander in Munster, wanted to advance against the Irish in the Aherlow Valley in Tipperary but he could only muster 700 poorly trained troops against an Irish army of about 8,000 soldiers and 1,000 horse troops. Norris also got poor supported from the new English settlers with only four lords bringing ten men. With little prospect of reinforcements from England Norris distributed arms to the settlers and left every man to take care of his own defence.

In 1598 O’Neill sent Captain Richard Tyrrell into Munster with 2,000 horse troops and they besieged the major towns like Kilmallock, Limerick, Cork and Waterford. On 6 October Munster arose in rebellion. The Earl of Desmond, James Fitz Thomas Fitzgerald (son of Thomas Roe of Conna) attacked the settler homesteads and tower houses. Hedgerows and mills were destroyed. Those settlers who made resistance were killed. Most of the other settlers were sent naked to the port towns with their property destroyed behind them.[31] Mr. Duff lost Sheanmore tower house to the Shean Fitzgeralds while James Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald recovered the ancestral home of Mocollop Castle.[32] By December the Munster Plantation was finished and the province was virtually in Irish hands.

The Earl of Essex was sent over to recover the situation but his army was destroyed in the series of small engagements. After Essex left Ireland James Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, the Sugán Earl and one of the chief rebels, met Henry Pyne of Mogeely Castle at Mocollop. The two had a long conversation about the war and the political situation. Fitzgerald offered to lay down his arms in return for the Earldom of Desmond and all its ancient lands. The two had a further meeting at Castlelyons where Pyne asked Fitzgerald to surrender and that he had Fitzgerald’s corn in safe keeping at Mogeely.[33] The talks came to no conclusion and war was resumed.

In November 1600 Henry Pyne of Mogeely Castle petitioned the government to station troops in the castles of Dromana, Lisfinny, Kilmacow, Sheanmore and Mocollop. Pyne would act as commander for all these garrisons. But the government had insufficient troops to attack and garrison these castles and declined the offer.[34]

Late in 1600 Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, was sent over to Ireland and the Irish had met their match. In September 1601 Spanish forces landed at Kinsale and O’Neill marched south to meet his allies. But Lord Mountjoy slowed his progress while building trenches around Kinsale to box in the Spanish. The Battle of Kinsale lasted three months with victory for the English.

Famine, plague and lawlessness spread across Munster as the English recovered the captured castles. They gave pardons to many Irish lords to speed up the process of recaptured. On 26 January 1602 a pardon was granted to James Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald of Mocollop, Mór ny Brien his wife and to Maurice Fitz Maurice his brother. His kinsman, Garret Fitz Maurice, grandson of the former chancellor of Lismore also got a pardon.[35] A further pardon was given to Garret Fitz James Fitzgerald for the surrender of Sheanmore.[36]

On 7 December 1602 Sir Walter Raleigh sold his entire Irish estate to Sir Richard Boyle for £1,500. Later in November 1603 Raleigh was charged with treason and so Boyle got further rights including the fishing on the Blackwater River from Glenmore near Mocollop to Youghal.[37] George Conyers still kept the lease for Mocollop under his new landlord.[38] But a few years later in 1611 the government had taken direct control of Mocollop and the manor because of uncertainty over Boyle’s title.[39]

We mentioned earlier how Mocollop was an extra piece of land given to Raleigh to make up the 42,000 acres of his royal grant. Somebody, possibly James Fitz Maurice, had informed the government that Raleigh had more than enough land to make up 42,000 acres without the inclusion of Mocollop. Sir Richard Boyle was good friends with Lord Deputy Chichester and soon after Mocollop was restored to his ownership. 

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To be continued 

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[1] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 5, p. 398
[2] Maurice Geary, Ballyduff G.A.A. History 1886-1989 (Litho, 1989), p. 13
[3] Rev. Samuel Hayman, The hand book of Youghal (Field, Youghal, 1973), p. xvi
[4] Ann Chambers, Eleanor Countess of Desmond (Wolfhound, Dublin, 2000), pp. 238-9
[5] Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 7, p. 147
[6] George Edward Cokayne (ed.), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (Alan Sutton, Gloucester, 1987), vol. IV, p. 248
[7] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of North-East Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Historical and archaeological Society, vol. 24, p. 2
[8] George Edward Cokayne (ed.), The Complete Peerage, vol. IV, p. 248
[9] Kieran Heffernan and Friedrich Billensteiner, The History of Strancally Castle and the Valley of the Blackwater between Lismore and Youghal (Authors, 1997), p. 16
[10] William Fraher, ‘McGrath’s castle of Abbeyside, Dungarvan’, in Decies, no. 49, p. 38
[11] Rev. Canon Power, Lismore-Mochuda: an historical sketch of Lismore parish (Dublin, 1946), p. 32
[12] Rev. Canon Power, Place-names of Decies (Cork, 1952), p. 52; G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of North-East Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, vol. 24, p. 3
[13] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 417
[14] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 3
[15] Richard Berleth, The Twilight Lords (Barnes Noble, New York, 1994), pp. 52-3
[16] Tom Barry, ‘The Munster Geraldines’, in By Bride and Blackwater (Donal de Barra, Milton Malbay, 2003), p. 78
[17] Tom Barry, ‘The Munster Geraldines’, in By Bride and Blackwater, pp. 74, 78
[18] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 3
[19] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 88
[20] Conna Community Council, Conna in history and tradition (1998), p. 7
[21] Michael Desmond, Ballymacarbery and Fourmilewater 1650-1850 (2004), pp. 5, 7
[22] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 3
[23] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 1 (1515-1574), p. 482
[24] Richard Berleth, The Twilight Lords, p. 225
[25] Robert Day (ed.), ‘Historical notes of the County and City of Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, series 1, vol. 1 (1892), p. 6
[26] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 2 (1575-1588), p. 452
[27] John T. Collins (ed.), ‘Fiants of Queen Elizabeth relating to the City and County of Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 45, pp. 129-30, fiant no. 5033; G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, p. 88
[28] G. O’Connell-Redmond, ‘Castles of north-east Cork’, in Journal of the Cork Archaeological and Historical Society, vol. 24, pp. 3, 4
[29] Rev. Samuel Hayman, The hand book of Youghal, p. 17
[30] Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1904, p. 159
[31] Richard Berleth, The Twilight Lords, pp. 277-9
[32] Maurice Geary, Ballyduff G.A.A. History 1886-1989 (Litho, 1989), p. 13
[33] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 4 (1601-1603), p. 79
[34] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 3 (1589-1600), p. 477
[35] W.H. Grattan Flood, ‘Lismore During Reign of Elizabeth’, in Journal of the Waterford and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society, vol. 10 (1907), p. 138
[36] W.H. Grattan Flood, ‘Lismore During Reign of Elizabeth’, in Journal of the Waterford and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society, vol. 10 (1907), p. 136
[37] Rev. Samuel Hayman, The hand book of Youghal, p. 20
[38] Rev. Samuel Hayman, The hand book of Youghal, p. 18
[39] J.S. Brewer & William Bullen (eds.), Calendar of Carew manuscripts at Lambeth (Liechtenstein, 1974 reprint), vol. 6 (1603-1624), p. 257



1 comment:

  1. Very well put together keep up good work enjoying reading many more

    ReplyDelete