Sunday, January 9, 2022

Coldridge parish in medieval Devon

 

Coldridge parish in medieval Devon

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

In December 2021 social media, newspapers and other forms of communication suddenly took in a great interest in the church of St. Matthew, parish of Coldridge in North Tawton hundred in Devonshire, England. The subject of their interest was the circa 1511 tomb of John Evans and the nearby stained glass window depicting a person in royal regalia that is said to be King Edward V, one of the two princes in the Tower of London. an account from 1870 gives Edward V as the person in the coloured glass and 1514 for the death of John Evans.[1] The princes were removed from the land of the living by command of King Richard III or people sympatric to his desire to be king. It is suggested that instead of facing death, Edward V, was removed to Devon to live out his life in the service of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset. Grey was son of John Grey of Groby and Elizabeth Woodville (married 1464 King Edward IV as her second husband). Not only is it said that King Richard III approved this but that both Henry VII and Henry VIII were both happy with the arrangement. Considering that the two revolts against Henry VII by Lambert Simnel (claiming to be Edward, Earl of Warwick and son of the Duke of Clarence) and Perking Warbeck (claiming to be Richard, Duke of York, and younger brother of Edward V) took most of Ireland away from the Tudors and may have caused doubts in the minds of some English nobles, it is difficult to see Henry VII leaving John Evans (the supposed Edward V) in happy contentment in Devon for the whole of his reign. Indeed when Lambert Simnel was crowned king in Dublin on 24th May 1487 by most of the nobles and senior clergy of Ireland, it was as King Edward VI.[2] This would support the accepted idea of the time that Edward V was dead.

Coldridge name

Coldridge is situated beside the River Taw in north central Devon, five miles south of Chumleigh. Its name is said to mean a ‘ridge where charcoal is made’. In 1086 the location was called Colriga and later spelt as Collerug (1184), Colerugge (1317), Colriche (1328), Caulridge (1577) and Cowlridge (1675).[3] The area was generally known as Coleridge up to the early 1900s when the spelling of Coldridge was adopted.[4] The name Coleridge is repeated in a few places in Devon. The region around Dartmouth is known as Coleridge hundred.[5] Another Coleridge lies in the parish of Egg Buckland in Roborough hundred.[6] A hundred is a subdivision of many England counties in which a number of parishes are grouped together for administration purposes.

Description of the village and parish

The village of Coldridge had 395 people in 1891 and 498 in 2011 and with no main road passing through; the village has remained as a peaceful place serving the surrounding farming community. The nearest railway station was in the neighbouring parish of Lapford. In 1870 the parish had a total population of 613 living in 122 houses. The parish measured 3,670 acres.[7]

Coldridge in 1086 (Domesday Book)

Before 1066 two thanes (Engelbald and Algar) held the manor of Coldridge freely. In 1086 the manor of Coldridge was held by the bishop of Coutances which he had subinfeuded to Drogo and was valued at 10s.[8] The bishop of Coutance, known in the Gloucestershire Domesday Book as the bishop of St. Lo (from the vill in Lower Normandy in the diocese of Coutance), was Geoffrey de Montbray (also spelt as Moubray), who became bishop of Coutance in 1048. Geoffrey spent much of his time after 1066 as a military leader in England, serving as lieutenant-general of the army. For his reward he got 280 manors across 12 counties of England including Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, Wiltshire and Devon in the West Country.[9] In 1088 Geoffrey sided with Duke Robert against King William Rufus and held Bristol castle for the Duke.[10] After the rebellion Geoffrey returned to Normandy where he died in 1093.[11] Drogo (later spelt as Drew) was tenant of Bishop Coutance at Coldridge and 72 other places in Devonshire including houses in Exeter and elsewhere at Wilmersham, Culbone and East Quantoxhead in Somersetshire.[12] Administration of Coldridge was more likely left in the hands of local officials.

In 1086 Coldridge manor paid tax for one hide. There was sufficient arable land for eight ploughs while the demesne had area for two ploughs. The eleven villagers and one smallholder had six ploughs and two virgates. There were three pigherds who paid tax for fifty pigs. The demesne had two slaves living on one virgate. Many places in England held a varied number of slaves at that time. The land had six acres of meadow, thirty acres of pasture and woodland which was one league in length and a half league wide. In 1066 Engelbald’s portion of the manor was worth £5 and had decreased to £4 by 1086 while Algar’s portion increased in value from 5s to 10s. In 1086 Engelbald held just one virgate from Drogo while Algar seems to have moved away or died.[13] Algar’s tenure said he could go with his land to whichever lord he decided. The one virgate of Engelbald maybe that added by Engelbald to the manor when he took tenure before 1066 but was not part of the manor before Engelbald’s time.[14]



The suggested Edward V in St Matthew church 

(photographer unknown)


Medieval holders of Coldridge

In the mid thirteenth century Coldridge manor was held by Ralph de Sicca Villa (Satchville) in the Honour of Barnstaple by one knight’s fee. Ralph was not good with his finances and in 1267 sold his interests in Bishop’s Clyst and Creely Barton to the bishop of Exeter to help pay his debts to the Jews.[15] Ralph was married to Gunnora and together they held various lands in Lincolnshire in 1236-7.[16] The long-term holders of medieval Coldridge was the Campo Arnulphi (Champernoun) family of whom we will see below.

Church of St. Matthew

The parish church of St. Matthew at Coldridge is mostly of fifteenth and early sixteenth century construction. This dedication is post-Reformation. The church was built in the twelfth century with some late twelfth and early thirteenth century fabric surviving in the nave and chancel. Yet the Norman font speaks of an earlier church on or near the site. In 1877 the chancel was heavily restored and in 1897 further restoration was done to the rest of the church. The church was a western tower (late 15th century) with two aisles on each side of the nave (the north aisle stops short of the western tower) while the chancel stands in its sixteenth century location. The chancel is separated from the nave by a rood screen which is dated somewhere between 1511 and 1540. The pulpit and a few of the benchends are also said to be of that early sixteenth century period. The east end of the north aisle contains the Barton chapel while the east end of the north aisle contains the chapel to John Evans, the mystery man of Coldridge. John Evans wears medieval armour on his tomb (north wall) yet his job was keeper of the deer park at Coldridge manor. Thomas Grey had given him custody of the manor. The east window of the Evans chapel has the sixteenth century stain glass of the royal figure holding a book and a sceptre under a crown. A desk top, in the Barton chapel, was inscribed, or recut, in the nineteenth century in memory of John Evans who died 1511.

Church patrons and value

On 29th July 1269 Bishop Bronescombe of Exeter gave the church of Coldridge to the collegiate church of the Holy Cross at Crediton by recommendation of Sir John Wiger.[17] Sir John Wiger was onetime sheriff of Devon and founded a chantry chapel in Exeter cathedral in the 1270s before his death in 1277.[18] The vicarage of Coldridge was located in the archdeaconry of Barnstaple, one of the four archdeaconries in the diocese of Exeter.[19] The archdeaconries were further subdivided into deaneries and Coldridge was in the deanery of Chulmeleghe. In 1288-91 the church of Coldridge was worth £7 13s 4d while the vicarage was valued at 13s 4d as part of the taxation of Pope Nicholas IV; a medium range value parish.[20] Over the subsequent centuries the vicarage of Coldridge was obliged to pay the clerical subsidy which was the church version of lay taxation. In 1453 the vicarage paid its tax but the amount was not recorded.[21]

In January 1562 Queen Elizabeth sold the advowson (right to present a cleric) of the rectory of Coldridge to John Waldron of Tiverton and Robert Northcote of Crediton while reserving the advowson of the vicarage to the crown. By 1625 the rectory advowson had come to George Slee of Tiverton (relative of John Waldron) and in 1647 to his son Roger Slee. In 1870 the vicarage was worth £142 and the bishop of Exeter was the patron. The Honourable Newton Fellows (son of the Earl of Portsmouth) of Eggsford House was owner of the rectory advowson.[22] In 1891 the Earl of Portsmouth was lord of the manor of Coldridge and impropriator of the rectorial tithes.

Church rectors and vicars

In the thirteenth century Coldridge parish had a rector and a vicar. But after 1300, only vicars are recording serving the parish. Many of the vicars at Coldridge were junior priests beginning life in a parish setting having possibility served as curate elsewhere but the records are silent on this. Very few, if any, went on to further education at Oxford University and received most of their education within the diocese of Exeter. In the 1530s the collegiate church Crediton (owner of Coldridge rectory) had a resident teacher, Philip Alcock, who was tasked with teaching children and choristers.[23] His predecessors may have provided basic reading and writing skills for the Coldridge vicars. It would seem that none of Coldridge’s vicars spent time serving in Exeter Cathedral or at least left no record of their time there. Thus for the most part, the Coldridge vicars passed through this world, with little to acknowledge their life on earth but the honour of serving as vicar of Coldridge. The vicars appeared to have attended the spiritual needs of the parishioners mostly on their own. In 1450 a subsidy levied on all chaplains in the diocese of Exeter recorded no chaplains working in Coldridge parish.[24]

On 4th October 1270 Master Henry Hamtesfort resigned the rectory of Coldridge to become rector of Petrockstowe in the patronage of Buckfast abbey. No new rector was recorded for Coldridge as the church was given to the vicars of the collegiate church at Crediton. Instead on 12th October 1273, Sir John de Pyletone, chaplain, was collated to Coldridge as vicar. In August 1272 John de Pyletone was given dispensation to attend the spiritual needs of parishioners.[25]

On 1st November 1347 Sir John Gaske, priest, was collated to Coldridge vicarage. On 6th April 1351 Sir John de Abbodesbury, priest, was collated to the vicarage of Coldridge but his incumbency was brief. On 19th October 1351 Sir Thomas de Wynkeleghe was collated to the vicarage.[26] On 31st January 1359 Sir Thomas de Wynkeleghe resigned the vicarage to be replaced on 9th February by Sir Ralph de Duellonde, priest. The presentation was overseen by Master Benedicto de Pastone and Roger de Inkepenne (the bishop’s secretary) among others.[27] Thomas de Wynkeleghe moved to the rectory of Thelbridge where he was installed on the recommendation of the patron, Dame Margery de Byneleghe. Before coming to Coldridge, Thomas de Wynkeleghe was made rector on Lundy Island on 1st July 1350 and possibly kept both livings as the next rector of Lundy was not collated until August 1353 in the person of Sir David Kelynge.[28]

Meanwhile on 25th February 1362 Sir Ralph de Duellonde was installed to the rectory of Hemyock by royal recommendation as the patron, Oliver de Dyneham was deceased.[29] On 3rd March 1363 John Salaman, priest, was collated to Coldridge. On 17th June 1366 Sir Thomas Warde, priest, was collated to the vicarage.[30]



South and East side of St Mattew church 

(photographer unknown)


On 20th February 1412 Thomas Hoper was collated as vicar of Coldridge. By 10th February 1435 he had resigned the living as he was installed as rector of Jacobstow in Cornwall which he held until his death in January 1453.[31] The new vicar of Coldridge was collated on 10th February 1435 in the person of Sir John Braas, chaplain.[32] On 24th March 1435 Sir John Braas was given a licence by the bishop to hear the confessions of his parishioners except cases reserved to the bishop by custom.[33] On 24th December 1437 Sir John Braas exchanged the vicarage with Sir Robert Edward and went to become rector of Filleigh under the patronage of Richard Densylle. On 19th December 1437 the archdeacon of Barnstaple, or his official, was asked to enquire about the exchange and see that everything was done in proper order.[34] On 26th September 1440 Sir Robert Edward resigned the vicarage to be replaced by Sir Gervase Gybbe.[35] The resignation was to facilitate an exchange of livings so that Robert Edward, then aged 45, became rector of Newton-Tracy in place of Gervase Gybbe who resigned Newton-Tracy on 20th October 1440.[36] Robert Edward served at Newton-Tracy until November 1443.[37] On 10th July 1441 Sir Geoffrey Gervys, vicar of Coldridge was at Chulmelegh church with other clergy in the deanery to certify the vacancy of Wemworth church before the archdeacon of Barnstaple.[38] After the death of Gervase Gybbe in 1445 he was succeeded at Coldridge by Sir Roger Walter on 10th August.[39] In 1425 Roger Walter was ordinate a deacon on the recommendation of Tavistock abbey.[40] On 10th July 1447 Roger Walter (called Richard Walter), vicar of Coldridge, was at Nymet Tracy church with other clergy of the deanery of Chulmelegh to enquire into the dilapidations of Sir William Forde, the late rector of Nymet Tracy.[41] In May 1450 Roger Walter was part of an enquiry into the patronage, and to see if Sir John Edward, priest, was suitable for the vacancy of Eggford church. In July 1452 Roger Walter was at Northetawton church with the other clergy in the deanery of Chulmelegh to enquire into the patronage of Bonlegh church.[42]

Among the clergy of Coldridge in the sixteenth century was John Gibbings, vicar of Coldridge from 1571 to 1602, and through his sixteen children has left descendents around the world.

Coldridge in 1332

In 1332 the government assessed and collected tax on movable goods at a rate of 15% in rural areas and 10% in boroughs. People living in rural areas with goods less than ten shillings were exempt. The value of armour, riding horses, jewels belonging to knights, gentlemen and their wives, tools of a person’s trade along with rent and services due from a villein were also excluded. The taxpayers in Coldridge and amount of tax payable include William Chambernoun and Robert Lestre (2s each); Roger Colrigg, John de Haukerigg and William Gynnor (18d each); Reginald de Helyere (16d); Roger Tornour, Matilda de Hakerigg, Maurice de Haukerigg, Robert atte Cross and William Helyere (12d each); Henry de Westcote, John Vicary, Reginald de Haukerigg, William de Haukerigg, Robert de Haukerigg, John de Southmore and Robert Webb (8d each).[43]

Campo Arnulphi (Champernoun) at Coldridge

The earliest known member of the Campo Arnulphi or Champernoun family was Jordan de Campo Arnulphi who was seigneur de Maisoncelles in the Lower Normandy region. Jordan lived in the years 1120 to 1166 during which time he came to England. Here he married Mabel, daughter of Robert FitzRobert, castellan of Gloucester (son of Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester) and his wife Hawise de Redvers, daughter of Baldwin de Redvers, 1st Earl of Devon. This marriage possibly brought the manor of Ilfracombe to Jordan de Campo Arnulphi. Jordan and Mabel had two sons, Jordan and Richard, one of whom was the father of Henry de Campo Arnulphi. Jordan junior had a son called William. After the death of Jordan, Mabel married William de Soliers as her second husband.[44]

Sometime before 1195 Henry de Traci gifted Coldridge manor to Ralph de Secheuill by the service of one knight’s fee within the Honour of Barnstaple. In turn Henry de Traci held half the Honour from William de Breosa.[45] Sometime before 1191 Henry de Campo Arnulphi married Rohais de Tracy, daughter of William de Tracy of Barnstaple and by this marriage possibly acquired Coldridge manor. Henry and Rohais were the parents of Oliver de Campo Arnulphi. In 1241 Oliver de Campo Arnulphi held one knights fee at Ilfracombe and was married to Wymarca. In the 1260s this fee was held by his son, Henry de Campo Arnulphi. This Henry de Campo Arnulphi was the husband of Dionisia in the 1240s.[46] Henry de Campo Arnulphi was possibly the father of William de Campo Arnulphi who in 1288 granted property in Prixford, Orridge, Marwood, Heatnon Punchardon and Challowell to Robert de Bageston and Matilda his wife in return for 12shillings per year and doing suit at William’s court in Ilfracombe.[47] William de Campo Arnulphi was married to Joan de Ferrers and was possibly the father of Henry de Campo Arnulphi of the 1270s who was the husband of Johanna de Bodrigan. In February 1270 Henry de Campo Arnulphi gave 300 marks to Hugh de Treverbyn (grandson of Robert de Cardinan who was a younger brother of Andrew de Cardinan, father of Isolda de Cardinan) for various properties in Cornwall that Henry had by gift of Isolda de Cardinan. These properties included the manors of Trevolonan, Tywardrayth, Ludgvan and Penalym in Jacobstown.[48]

In 1305 William de Campo Arnulphi died seized of the manors of Trevelowen and Tywardraith in Cornwall along with the Devon manors of Ilfracombe (held of Sir Hugh de Curteneyew) and Coldridge (Colrigg) as well as the hamlets of Clist and Hewed. Within Hewed hamlet the place called ‘La Birch’ was held of the Earl of Gloucester by knight service. The manor of Coldridge was held of Geoffrey de Caunvile by knight’s service as of Berdestaple manor (possibly Barnstaple) which was held for life of the inheritance of William Martin. William de Campo Arnulphi was succeeded by his 33 year old son, Henry de Campo Arnulphi.[49] This Henry de Campo Arnulphi was married to Joan Bodrigan and in May 1324 they received the manor of Tywardrayth in Cornwall from Hugh de Campo Arnulphi with reversion if they left no heirs.[50]

In 1325/6 William son of William Martin died leaving property in Devon, Cornwall, Somerset and Wales along with seven shops and a garden in London. In Devon Henry de Campo Arnulphi held Coueleye of William by a half knight’s fee and held Coldridge (Colrigg) of William by one knight’s fee. Henry de Campo Arnulphi held Ilfracombe from William Martin by 8 marks.[51]

Sometime before June 1328 Henry de Campo Arnulphi gave the manors of Coldridge, Ilfracombe and La Hefde along with the advowsons of Ilfracombe and Stockeleigh and land in La Pole with Treuelowen manor in Cornwall with Jacobstown advowson in trust to Walter de Kancia, parson of Cardinan and Peter de Bodrigan to hold the estate and give it to any heirs of Henry. In June 1328 Henry de Campo Arnulphi brought out the trust for 100 marks in favour of his son William de Campo Arnulphi but with reversion to the heirs of Henry if William left no heirs.[52] Henry de Campo Arnulphi had a number of property transactions with the Bodrigan family. From William de Bodrigan, archdeacon of Cornwall, Henry got land in Tredrym to hold with his wife Joan, daughter of Sir Henry de Bodrigan who was nephew of the archdeacon. From his father-in-law, Henry got land in Hendersick and Merryfield to hold with his wife.[53]

In May 1329 an inquisition into the estate of the late Sir Henry de Campo Arnulphi found that he once held Coldridge manor and the advowson of Jacobstown church in Cornwall as well as other manors and property in Devon (manors of Ilfracombe and Hewel with advowsons of Ilfracombe and Stokelegh) and Cornwall (Trevelowen manor). During his life Henry had demised his estate to Walter de Kent, parson of Cardian church and Peter de Bodrigan to hold for the life of Henry with remainder to William, his son, for which Henry paid the trustees 100 marks. William de Campo Arnulphi was 16 or 18 years old when his father died and although he was his father’s son the jury said no property would descend to him but to the heirs of the trustees.[54] The surname of Campo Arnulphi was also written as Champernoun as attested by Cornish deeds.[55] In 1337 William de Campo Arnulphi held the manor of Ludenou in the Honour of Launceston along with two knight fees at Stockleigh English and Harford in Devon and at Trelawn in Pelynt in Cornwall as part of the Duchy of Cornwall.[56]



North and West tower of St Mattew church 

(photographer unknown)


Herle and Boneville inheritance 

William de Campo Arnulphi had two daughters, Katherine and Elizabeth. Thus after his death, the Campo Arnulphi estate was divided in two equal halves. Katherine married Walter de Wodeland and held Tywardrayth manor with the Jacobstown advowson with various knight fees at Tywandrayth, Bodruggan, Govelyl, Trevalgarthan, Trevynek and Brethey in Cornwall and La Heved manor in Devon. This and other small properties amounted to £140 with Elizabeth giving Margaret £14 rent from Ilfracombe manor. Elizabeth received some property in Cornwall but mostly the Devon lands including the manor of Coldridge with a total value of £168 which made £154 when the £14 to Katherine is deducted. The deed of separation  (dated Wednesday before the Nativity of Virgin Mary 29 Edward III) said that attached to Coldridge were various knight fees including Coryton and Coryford (one), Bryfford (quarter), and other unspecified knight fees at Wogeville, Ayriston, Chyryton, Triffebele, Wetherigge, Wylgeriston, Notteston Mill, Horswille and Dulond. The two sisters would present to Ilfracombe church in alternative occasions.[57]



Coldridge village (photographer unknown)


As Katherine died without issue, Elizabeth (wife of William Polglas and later John Sergeaux) acquired the whole estate. In 1361 Elizabeth and William Polglas granted the manors of Coldridge, Ilfracombe and Clyswick along with rents from Exeter and Cowick in St. Thomas along with Treuellowan manor in Cornwall to John Hert and John Changeford and the heirs of John Changeford with reversion to the heirs of Elizabeth.[58] This deed would suggest that Elizabeth had no children in 1361 but later had a daughter, Margaret by William Polglas. Elizabeth also had a son called Richard by William Polglas but Richard was said to be an idiot from birth and subsequently sent out of the country by John Herle so that his fate was to the medieval people unknown. It was said at the time that John Herle arranged to marry Margaret and remove Richard so that he could gain possession of the estate.

Elizabeth died before Hilary 19 Richard II when an inquisition post mortem into her estate was conducted. The jury said that Elizabeth was an idiot since birth and that her estate should have passed to the king since the death of her father, William de campo Arnulphi. But William Polglas concealed this from the government for 13 years; then John Sergeaux concealed it for 22 years and John Herle concealed it for 8 years. John Evans of St. Matthew’s church is not the only person in Coldridge with a concealed history. The jury found that Elizabeth held the Cornish manors of Tywardreyth, Trevelowen, Prydeaux and Ocerham with the advowson of Jacobstown and Maramchurch with the fee of St Maria Week. In Devon she held the manor and church of Ilfracombe and Coldridge along with Heed manor and Clyst Chambernoun manor with rent from Exeter town property.[59] This appears to be the rare time when the Campo Arnulphi estate held the advowson of Coldridge church. The inclusion was possibly by way of John Herle trying to acquire more property than he was entitled to hold.

After Elizabeth Campo Arnulphi died the estate passed to her daughter Margaret, wife of John Herle. Margaret predeceased her husband and he died on 11th April 1418 leaving the Campo Arnulphi estate to his son, John Herle. In 1418 John Herle senior died holding the manors of Trelawney, Tywardreath and Week St. Mary (with Jacobstown advowson) in Cornwall along with 7 messuages and an acre in Porthallow. In Devon he held the manor and advowson of Ilfracombe along with the manors of Coldridge and Head Barton as well as the advowson of Stockleigh English, a messuage and 40 acres in Spittle along with 4 messuages and 80 acres at Poole. Coldridge manor was held of Sir John Cornwall and Elizabeth his wife, in her right, of the castle of Barnstaple by knight service. The manor with the advowson of Stockleigh was worth ten marks. Stockleigh advowson was also held of John and Elizabeth Cornwall in her right but of Trematon castle.[60]

Shortly before his death John Herle junior gave all his property in trust to John Speke, John Pree and John Braas, clerk (vicar of Coldridge since February 1435). The trustees conceded the estate to John Herle for life with remainder to Sir William Bonville. Thus when John Herle junior died in December 1435 the Campo Arnulphi estate passed to his kinsman, William Bonville who was the great grandson of Henry de Campo Arnulphi (died 1329). John Herle was married to Isabel but left no children by her and she survived her husband. The descendent of succession was that Henry had two children, William (ancestor of John Herle) and Joan (wife of Nicholas Bonville), mother of William Bonville, who was the father of John Bonville who in turn was the father of the William Bonville of 1435. The 1435 inquisition found that Coldridge manor was worth £12 and held by service unknown from unknown lords. No mention was made of the Coldridge advowson.[61] William Bonville married Margaret and secondly married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Courtenay, Earl of Devon. William (died 1461) and Margaret were the parents of William Bonville and grandparents of William Bonville, Lord Harington. Both son and grandson were killed in December 1460 at the battle of Wakefield. William Bonville the elder was beheaded in February 1461 but his estates were not attainted as the Yorkist won power three weeks later. The heir of the Bonville and Campo Arnulphi inheritance was Cecily, daughter of William Bonville, Lord Harington. In 1475 she married Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset, and was succeeded by her son and grandson who was attainted and beheaded in 1554 when all his honours were declared forfeit.[62] Coldridge and the other inheritances of the Campo Arnulphi fell to the crown and were divided among later owners.   

Birch in Coldridge

Within Coldridge parish are a number of subdivisions that were also held by the Campo Arnulphi (Champernoun) family but were often recorded separately in the documents as they were held in tenure from different chief lords to that of Coldridge manor. In 1296 the land of Birch and its members within Coldridge parish was held by one knight’s fee by the heirs of Henry de Chambernoun (Campo Arnulphi) of the estate of the late Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford.[63] In October 1314 the manor of La Heaved, Le Birch, Suthcote and Colecot were held by Henry de Campo Arnulphi by the service of one knight’s fee from Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford.[64] By 1346 Birch and Gilsot in Coldridge were elevated to manor status. In 1346 Sir Nicholas de Bolevylle and Joan his wife gave these two manors and other property to Sir Nicholas de Bolevylle and Agnes his wife to have and hold of Nicholas, Joan and their heirs on payment of 200 marks.[65] In February 1349 it was said that Heaved and la Birch were manors held by William de Campo Arnulphi by the service of a half knights fee from Hugh le Despenser, one of the heirs of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford.[66]

Other items

In later times, Coldridge hosted an annual cattle fair on the first Tuesday in March. In medieval times the manor and parish had to travel to neighbouring parishes to attend fairs and markets. Chulmleigh held a fair on 22nd July with a market on Wednesday and Friday. North Tawton had a Wednesday market and a fair on the 5th to 7th December while Chawleigh had a Thursday market and a fair on 21st to 24th July.[67]

Conclusion

Medieval Coldridge was all the above and more. Other documents may reveal other aspects of its history and then there is the oral history that is long gone and totally unknown. The Campo Arnulphi (Champernoun) family had long association with the parish and manor to be succeeded by a succession of manor owners who concealed the mental health of the Campo Arnulphi heiress so they could acquire the estate. But John Herle and his son only held it for two generations before it fell to a distance kinsman, William Bonville. The Bonville family and their successors, the Grey family, were both Yorkist supporters. But both families had a habit of dying in battle or getting beheaded so the estate fell to the crown in 1554 which is a good cut off date for medieval Coldridge and the beginning of its modern history. 

 

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[1] Wilson, J.M., Imperial Gazetteer of England (1872), Coldridge

[2] Otway-Ruthven, A.J., A history of Medieval Ireland (London, 1980), pp. 403, 406

[3] Gover, J.E.B., Mawer, A., & Stenton, F.M., The place-names of Devon (2 vols. Cambridge, 1986), p. 365

[4] Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England, Coldridge

[5] Gover, Mawer & Stenton, The place-names of Devon, p. 332

[6] Gover, Mawer & Stenton, The place-names of Devon, p. 227

[7] Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England, Coldridge

[8] Thorn, C., & Thorn, F. (eds.), Domesday Book, Devon (2 vols. Chichester, 1985), Part two, No. 3/22

[9] Jones, W.H. (ed.), Domesday for Wiltshire (Bath, 1865), p. 26, note 1

[10] Taylor, C., An analysis of the Domesday Survey of Gloucestershire (Bristol, 1889), p. 4

[11] Jones (ed.), Domesday for Wiltshire, p. 26, note 1

[12] Thorn & Thorn (eds.), Domesday Book, Devon, Part two, Nos. 3/2 to 3/85; Eyton, Rev. R.W., Domesday Studies: an analysis and digest of the Somerset survey and of the Somerset Gheld inquest of A.D. 1084 (2 vols. London, 1880), vol. II, pp. 19, 35

[13] Thorn & Thorn (eds.), Domesday Book, Devon, Part one, No. 3/22

[14] Thorn & Thorn (eds.), Domesday Book, Devon, Part two, No. 3/22

[15] Summerson, H. (ed.), Crown pleas of the Devon Eyre of 1238 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vol. 28, 1985), nos. 214, 477

[16] Dryburgh, P., & Hartland, B. (eds.), Calendar of the Fine Rolls of the reign of Henry III, Volume III, 19 to 26 Henry III, 1234-1242 (London, 2009), no. 21/148

[17] Snell, L.S., The suppression of the religious foundations of Devon and Cornwall (Marazion, 1967), p. 90

[18] Orme, N., The minor clergy of Exeter Cathedral biographies: 1250-1548 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vol. 54, 2013), p. 305

[19] Hingeston-Randolph, Rev. F.C. (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, A.D. 1420-1455 (4 vols. London, 1915), vol. II, p. 787

[20] Hingeston-Randolph, Rev. F.C. (ed.), The registers of Walter Bronescombe (A.D. 1257-1280), and Peter Quibil (A.D. 1280-1291), Bishops of Exeter (London, 1889), p. 461

[21] Dunstan, G.R. (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, 1420-1455, Registrum Commune, Vol. III (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vo. 13, 1968), p. 181

[22] Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England, Coldridge

[23] Snell, The suppression of the religious foundations of Devon and Cornwall, p. 152

[24] Dunstan (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, Registrum Commune, Vol. III, pp. 56, 64

[25] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The registers of Walter Bronescombe (A.D. 1257-1280), and Peter Quibil (A.D. 1280-1291), Bishops of Exeter, pp. 60, 125, 222

[26] Hingeston-Randolph, Rev. F.C. (ed.), The register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, A.D. 1327-1369 (3 vols. London, 1899), vol. III, pp. 1364, 1416, 1419

[27] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, vol. III, pp. 1364, 1416, 1419, 1451

[28] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, vol. III, pp. 1411, 1428, 1450

[29] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, vol. III, p. 1477

[30] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of John de Grandisson, Bishop of Exeter, vol. III, pp. 1490, 1499

[31] Orme, The minor clergy of Exeter Cathedral biographies: 1250-1548, p. 156

[32] Hingeston-Randolph, Rev. F.C. (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, A.D. 1420-1455 (3 vols. London, 1909), vol. 1, p. 183

[33] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, vol. II, p. 620

[34] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, vol. 1, p. 230; Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, vol. II, p. 686; Dunstan, G.R. (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, 1420-1455, Registrum Commune, Vol. II (Canterbury & York Society, 1966), p. 72

[35] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, vol. 1, p. 261

[36] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, vol. II, pp. 787, 788; Dunstan (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, Registrum Commune, Vol. II, p. 72

[37] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, vol. 1, p. 281

[38] Dunstan (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, Registrum Commune, Vol. II, p. 236

[39] Hingeston-Randolph (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, vol. 1, p. 302

[40] Dunstan, G.R. (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, 1420-1455, Registrum Commune, Vol. IV (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vo. 16, 1971), p. 99

[41] Dunstan (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, Registrum Commune, Vol. II, p. 392

[42] Dunstan (ed.), The register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, Registrum Commune, Vol. III, pp. 70, 153

[43] Erskine, A.M. (ed.), The Devonshire lay subsidy of 1332 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vol. 14, 1969), pp. viii, 79

[44] Bearman, R. (ed.), Charters of the Redvers family and the Earldom of Devon, 1090-1217 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vol. 37, 1994), pp. 4, 11, 146

[45] Reichel, Rev. O.J. (ed.), Devon feet of fines, volume I, Richard 1-Henry III, 1196-1272 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, 1912), no. 1

[46] Reichel (ed.), Devon feet of fines, volume I, Richard 1-Henry III, 1196-1272, nos. 497, 661

[47] Reichel, Rev. O.J., Prideaux, F.B., & Tapley-Soper, H. (eds.), Devon feet of fines, volume II, 1 Edward 1-43 Edward III, 1272-1369 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, 1939), no. 836

[48] Rowe, J.H. (ed.), Cornwall feet of fines, volume 1, Richard 1-Edward III, 1195-1377 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, 1914), no. 222

[49] Sharp, J.E.E.S. (ed.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume IV, Edward I (London, 1913, reprint Liechtenstein, 1973), no. 312

[50] Rowe (ed.), Cornwall feet of fines, volume 1, Richard 1-Edward III, 1195-1377, no. 480

[51] Sharp, J.E.E.S. (ed.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume VI, Edward II (London, 1910, reprint Liechtenstein, 1973), no. 710 (pp. 447, 450)

[52] Rowe (ed.), Cornwall feet of fines, volume 1, Richard 1-Edward III, 1195-1377, no. 677

[53] Holford, M.L., Mileson, S.A., Noble, C.V., & Parkin, K. (eds.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume XXIV, 11 to 15 Henry VI, 1432-1437 (London, 2010), no. 462

[54] Sharp, J.E.E.S. (ed.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume VII, Edward III (London, 1909, reprint Liechtenstein, 1973), no. 209

[55] Sharp (ed.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume VII, Edward III, no. 232

[56] Hull, P.L. (ed.), The caption of seisin of the Duchy of Cornwall, 1337 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vol. 17, 1971), pp. xv, 11, 123

[57] Maxwell-Lyte, H.C. (ed.), A Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds, Volume IV (London, 1902), no. A.6956

[58] Rowe (ed.), Cornwall feet of fines, volume 1, Richard 1-Edward III, 1195-1377, no. 692

[59] Dawes, M.C.B., & Johnson, H.C., Condon, M.M., Cook, C.A., & Jones, H.E. (eds.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume XVII, Richard II (London, 1988), no. 700

[60] Kirby, J.L., & Stevenson, J.H. (eds.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume XXI, 6 to 10 Henry V, 1418-1422 (London, 2002), nos. 91, 92. The Cornwall property is in number 91 while the Devon property is in number 92.

[61] Holford, Mileson, Noble & Parkin (eds.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume XXIV, 11 to 15 Henry VI, 1432-1437, no. 461

[62] Cokayne, G.E., The Complete Peerage (Gloucester, 1987), vol. II, pp. 218, 219

[63] Sharp, J.E.E.S. (ed.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume III, Edward 1 (London, 1912, reprint Liechtenstein, 1973), no. 371 (p. 250)

[64] Sharp, J.E.E.S. (ed.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume V, Edward II (London, 1908, reprint Liechtenstein, 1973), no. 538 (p. 339)

[65] Reichel, Prideaux & Tapley-Soper (eds.), Devon feet of fines, volume II, 1 Edward 1-43 Edward III, 1272-1369, no. 1369

[66] Atkinson, E.G. (ed.), Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Volume IX, Edward III (London, 1916, reprint Liechtenstein, 1973), no. 428 (p. 335)

[67] Kowaleski, M., Local Markets and Regional Trade in Medieval Exeter (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 361, 362, 366

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